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Tomistoma schlegelii (MÜLLER, 1838)

IUCN Red List - Tomistoma schlegelii - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaCrocodylidae (Crocodylia, crocodiles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: False gharial, Sunda Gavial
G: Falscher (oder Schlegels) Gavial, Sundagavial 
SynonymCrocodilus (Gavialis) schlegelii MÜLLER 1838
Tomistoma schlegelii — KING & BURKE 1989
Tomistoma schlegelii — COX et al. 1998: 122
Tomistoma schlegelii — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 233 
DistributionIndonesia (Sumatra, Borneo, Kalimantan, Java, Sulawesi),
Malaysia (Malay Peninsula), S Thailand, Vietnam

Type locality: Karau river and Lake Lamoeda on river Doeson, Southern Borneo. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntypes:
RMNH 39581(cat.ost.a): complete skeleton + skull, (probably river Karau,) Borneo
RMNH 35444 (cat.ost.b): skull, probably river Karau, Borneo
RMNH 35445 (cat.ost.c): skull, Lake Lamoeda, river Doeson, Borneo, 1S 115E.
RMNH 7934: stuffed specimen, Borneo
RMNH 7935: stuffed small specimen
RMNH 35449: egg (dry),Lake Lamoeda, river Doeson, Borneo, 1S 115E.
RMNH 3198: egg (alcohol), Lake Lamoeda, river Doeson, Borneo, 1S 115E.
RMNH 3200: embryo with large yolk sac, Lake Lamoeda, river Doeson, Borneo, 1S 115E. 
CommentOften separated in its own subfamily, Tomistominae, or more recently assigned to the Gavialidae (WILLIS et al. 2007).

Distribution: Not in Myanmar (= Burma) according to STUEBING et al. (2006).

Reproduction: oviparous.

Type species: Crocodilus (Gavialis) schlegelii MÜLLER 1838 is the type species of the genus Tomistoma MÜLLER 1846: 122. 
EtymologyNamed after Hermann Schlegel (1804-1884), German herpetologist. 
References
  • Auliya, M. 2000. Record of Tomistoma schlegelii in West Kalimantan. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 19 (2): 8-9
  • Auliya, M. 2006. Taxonomy, Life History, and conservation of giant reptiles in west Kalimantan. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 432 pp. - get paper here
  • Bonke, R. & Böhme, W. 2007. Fragen zur Feilandökologie des Sunda-Gavials, Tomistoma schlegelii (MÜLLER 1838) im Tanjung Puting-Nationalpark, Zentralkalimantan (Indonesien). Elaphe 15 (2): 41-46
  • Bonke, R., F. Ihlow, W. Böhme & D. Rödder 2014. Movement patterns of Tomistoma schlegelii in the Sekonyer Kanan River (Tanjung Puting National Park, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia): preliminary range size estimates. Salamandra 50 (1): 40-52 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. On the occurrence of Schlegel's gavial (Tomistoma schlegeli) in the Malay Peninsula, with remarks on the atlas and axis of the crocodilians. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1896: 628-633 - get paper here
  • Brock, J. 1998. Krokodile. Ein Leben mit Panzerechsen. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 160 pp. - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Densmore, L.D. & HERBERT C. DESSAUER 1984. LOW LEVELS OF PROTEIN DIVERGENCE DETECTED BETWEEN GA VIALIS AND TOMISTOMA : EVIDENCE FOR CROCODILIAN MONOPHYLY?. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 77B (4): 715-720
  • Gatesy, J.; Amato, G. 1992. Sequence similarity of 12S ribosomal segment of mitochondrial DNAs of gharial and false gharial. Copeia 1992 (): 241-244. - get paper here
  • GRAMENTZ, D. 2012. Zum Schreckruf eines Schlüpflings von Tomistoma schlegelii (MÜLLER, 1838). Sauria 34 (3): 19-24 - get paper here
  • Müller, S. 1838. Waarnemingen over de Indische Krokodillen en Beschrijving Van Enne Nieuwe Soort. Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologie, Amsterdam and Leyden. 5: 61-87
  • Müller, S. 1846. Ueber den Charakter der Thierwelt auf den Inseln des indischen Archipels, ein Beitrag zur zoologischen Geographie. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 12: 109-128 - get paper here
  • Piras, Paolo; Luciano Teresi; Angela D. Buscalioni and Jorge Cubo 2009. The shadow of forgotten ancestors differently constrains the fate of Alligatoroidea and Crocodyloidea. Global Ecology and Biogeography (Global Ecol. Biogeogr.) 18: 30–40
  • Sommerlad, R. 2011. Krokodile – Reptiliengiganten in Gefahr. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (87): 16-22 - get paper here
  • Sommerlad, R. 2011. Ein besonderes Schutzprojekt, nicht nur für Krokodile: Danau Mesangat. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (87): 30-35 - get paper here
  • Sommerlad, R. & Baur, M. 2004. Der Sunda-Gavial, Tomistoma schlegelii (MÜLLER 1838) - kann dieses einzigartige Krokodil überleben?. Draco 5 (20): 54-67 - get paper here
  • Stuebing, R.B.; Bezuijen, M.R.; Auliya, M. & Voris, H.K. 2006. The current and historic distribution of Tomistoma schlegelii (The False Gharial) (MÜLLER 1838) (Crocodylia, Reptilia). Raffles Bull. Zool. 54 (1): 181-197
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Crocodilians. Their natural history and captive husbandry. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia GB 48: 8-10]
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Krokodile - Biologie und Haltung. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia Münster 11 (6): 95-96]
  • Wermuth,H. & Fuchs,K. 1978. Bestimmen von Krokodilen und ihrer Häute. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart - New York, 100 pages, [ISBN 3-437-30268-X]
  • Willis, Ray E.; L. Rex McAliley, Erika D. Neeley and Llewellyn D. Densmore III 2007. Evidence for placing the false gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii) into the family Gavialidae: Inferences from nuclear gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43 (3): 787-794 - get paper here
 
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