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Toxicocalamus longissimus BOULENGER, 1896

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesWoodlark or Fergusson Island forest snake 
SynonymToxicocalamus longissimus BOULENGER 1896: 152
Vanapina lineata DE VIS 1905: 49
Apisthocalamus longissimus — BOULENGER 1908
Toxicocalamus longissimus — WELCH 1994: 113
Toxicocalamus longissimus — KRAUS 2009
Toxicocalamus longissimus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 732
Toxicocalamus longissimus — O’SHEA et al. 2015 
DistributionPapua New Guinea (Woodlark and Ferguson Islands)

Type locality: Woodlark Island, Milne Bay Province Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.18.92-92 
CommentHabitat: fossorial (digging)

Behavior: diurnal


Type species: Toxicocalamus longissimus BOULENGER 1896: 152 is the type species of the genus Toxicocalamus BOULENGER 1896.

Comparisons. The genus Toxicocalamus can be distinguished from all other New Guinea elapids, including M. ikaheka but excepting Pseudonaja textilis (Duméril et al., 1854), by the absence of a temporo- labial scale between the fifth and sixth supralabials (O’Shea et al. 2015). 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Description of a new genus of Elapine snakes from Woolark Island, British New Guinea. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 18: 152 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1908. Description of a new elapine snake of the genus Apisthocalamus, Blg., from New Guinea. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 1 (3): 248-249. - get paper here
  • de Vis, Charles Walter de 1905. A new genus of lizard. Ann. Queensland Museum (Brisbane) 6: 46-52
  • de Vis, Charles Walter de 1905. A new genus of lizard. On Typhlops torresianus. Ann. Queensland Museum (Brisbane) 6: 48 - get paper here
  • Ingram G J 1989. Vanapina lineata de Vis 1905 Is a Junior Synonym of the New Guinean Snake Toxicocalamus longissimus Boulenger, 1896. Copeia 1989 (3): 753-755 - get paper here
  • Kraus, Fred 2009. NEW SPECIES OF TOXICOCALAMUS (SQUAMATA: ELAPIDAE) FROM PAPUA NEW GUINEA. Herpetologica 65 (4): 460 - get paper here
  • Longman, H. A. 1918. Notes on some Queensland and Papuan reptiles. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 6: 37-44
  • McDowell, Samuel B. 1969. Toxicocalamus, a New Guinea genus of snakes of the family Elapidae. Journal of Zoology, London 159: 443-511
  • O'Shea,M. 1996. A Guide to the Snakes of Papua New Guinea. Independent Publishing, Port Moresby, xii + 239 pp. - get paper here
  • O’Shea, Mark; Fred Parker, and Hinrich Kaiser 2015. A New Species of New Guinea Worm-Eating Snake, Genus Toxicocalamus (Serpentes: Elapidae), From the Star Mountains of Western Province, Papua New Guinea, With a Revised Dichotomous Key to the Genus. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 161 (6): 241-264. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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