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Toxicocalamus loriae (BOULENGER, 1897)

IUCN Red List - Toxicocalamus loriae - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesLoria forest snake 
SynonymApistocalamus loriae BOULENGER 1898: 705
Pseudapistocalamus nymani LÖNNBERG 1900
Apistocalamus pratti BOULENGER 1904: 451
Apisthocalamus loennbergii BOULENGER 1908
Apisthocalamus loriae — BOULENGER 1908
Apisthocalamus pratti — BOULENGER 1908
Apisthocalamus nymani — BOULENGER 1908
Apisthocalamus lamingtoni KINGHORN 1928 (fide WALLACH et al. 2014)
Apistocalamus pratti — PARKER 1936: 92
Toxicocalamus loriae — WELCH 1994: 113
Apisthocalamus loennbergi — KOERBER 2009
Toxicocalamus loriae — KRAUS 2009
Toxicocalamus loriae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 732
Toxicocalamus loriae — O’SHEA et al. 2015 
DistributionIndonesia (Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea; elevation ~4000 feet (from A. pratti).

Type locality: Haveri, Central Province  
Reproductionoviparous; a specimen of Apistocalamus loennbergi, a synonym of T. loriae (MCZ R-119027) contained seven eggs (O’Shea et al. 2018: 422). 
TypesHolotype: MSNG 29141
Holotype: AMS R9351, Oro Province: Mt. Lamington [lamingtoni]
Lectotype: BMNH 1946.1.18.24, paralectotypes: BMNH 1946.1.18.25– 1946.1.18.26, both Indonesia: West Papua: north of Fakfak [Apisthocalamus loennbergii]
Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.17.53, Papua New Guinea: Dinawa [Apistocalamus pratti]
Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.14.54, Morobe Province: Sattleberg [Pseudapistocalamus nymani] 
CommentHabitat: fossorial (digging)

Behavior: diurnal


Type species: Apistocalamus loriae BOULENGER 1898 is the type species of the (sub-) genus Apistocalamus BOULENGER 1898: 705.

Conservation status: least concern; this is the most common Toxicocalamus species with 66% of all museum specimens belonging to this species. However, O’Shea et al. 2015 believes that this variable species represents a species complex.

Taxonomy: Strickland et al. (2016) document at least five undescribed species that all key morphologically to Toxicocalamus loriae. 
EtymologyThe species name pumehanae is a matronym honouring Kathleen Imada, whose Hawaiian name is Pumehana and who was a collection technician in the Vertebrate Zoology Collection at the Bernice P. Bishop Museum in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. She was instrumental in the development of the Museum’s herpetology collections database and the scientific success of the collection over more than a decade of service. She now works in the Museum’s Botany Collection. Most relevant to this paper and this new species is that Pumehana facilitated the visit by MOS to the collection in June 2014 so that he could examine New Guinea elapids; she also arranged a loan of 16 specimens, including the holotype, for further study at the University of Wolverhampton (United Kingdom), in late 2014. 
  • Beolens, ; Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1897. An account of the reptiles and batrachians collected by Dr. L. Loria in British New Guinea. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, 18: 694—710 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1908. Description of a new elapine snake of the genus Apisthocalamus, Blg., from New Guinea. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 1 (3): 248-249. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, GEORGE A. 1904. Descriptions of three new snakes. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 13 (78): 450-452 - get paper here
  • Clegg, Jonathan R. and Merlijn Jocque 2015. The Collection of Snakes Made by Benoît Mys and Jan Swerts in Northern Papua New Guinea in 1982–85 Journal of Herpetology 50 (3): 476-485 [2016] - get paper here
  • Kinghorn, J. R. 1928. Notes on Some Reptiles and Batrachians from the Northern Division of Papua, With Descriptions of New Species of Apisthocalamus and Lygosoma. Rec. Austral. Mus. 16: 289-293. - get paper here
  • Koerber, S. 2009. From sponges to primates: emendation of 30 species nomina dedicated to the Swedish zoologist Einar Lönnberg. Zootaxa 2201: 63–68 - get paper here
  • Kraus, Fred 2009. NEW SPECIES OF TOXICOCALAMUS (SQUAMATA: ELAPIDAE) FROM PAPUA NEW GUINEA. Herpetologica 65 (4): 460 - get paper here
  • McDowell, Samuel B. 1969. Toxicocalamus, a New Guinea genus of snakes of the family Elapidae. Journal of Zoology, London 159: 443-511
  • O'Shea,M. 1996. A Guide to the Snakes of Papua New Guinea. Independent Publishing, Port Moresby, xii + 239 pp. - get paper here
  • O’Shea, Mark; Allen Allison, Hinrich Kaiser 2018. The taxonomic history of the enigmatic Papuan snake genus Toxicocalamus (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae), with the description of a new species from the Managalas Plateau of Oro Province, Papua New Guinea, and a revised dichotomous key. Amphibia-Reptilia 39: 403-433
  • O’Shea, Mark; Fred Parker, and Hinrich Kaiser 2015. A New Species of New Guinea Worm-Eating Snake, Genus Toxicocalamus (Serpentes: Elapidae), From the Star Mountains of Western Province, Papua New Guinea, With a Revised Dichotomous Key to the Genus. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 161 (6): 241-264. - get paper here
  • Parker, H.W. 1936. A collection of reptiles and amphibians from the mountains of British New Guinea. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (10) 17: 66-93
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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