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Tretioscincus bifasciatus (DUMÉRIL, 1851)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Gymnophthalminae), Gymnophthalmini, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Rio Magdalena Minitegu, Rio Magdalena Tegu 
SynonymHeteropus Bifasciatus A. DUMÉRIL in C. DUMÉRIL & A. DUMÉRIL 1851:182
Tretioscincus castanicerus COPE 1862: 184
Tretioscincus bifasciatus bifasciatus — SHREVE 1947: 527
Tretioscincus bifasciatus kugleri SHREVE 1947
Tretioscincus bifasciatus kugleri — TEST et al. 1966
Tretioscincus bifasciatus — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 262
Tretioscincus bifasciatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 552
Tretioscincus bifasciatus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Tretioscincus bifasciatus — MCNISH 2011 
DistributionSuriname, French Guiana, Venezuela (Sucre etc.),
Caribbean: Margarita I, Dutch Leeward Islands
Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)]

bifasciatus: Caribbean Colombia.

kugleri: N Venezuela, Isla Maragarita, Dutch Leeward Islands; Type locality: Paují, Acosta, Estado Falcón, Venezuela.

castanicterus: New Granada.

Type locality: Río Magdalena valley, Colombia.  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 3038
Syntypes: ANSP 9633-34 [castanicterus]
Holotype: MCZ 49039 [kugleri] 
DiagnosisDescription: Maximum SVL 58 mm; dorsal scales smooth on nape, becoming distinctly keeled posterior to nape; about 29 dorsal scales between parietals and tail base; body and tail cylindrical, dorsal caudal scales strongly keeled; short, well-developed legs; inner finger rudimentary and clawless; nasals separated by single frontonasal; prefrontals widely separated; supraoculars 2; lower eyelid moveable with undivided, transparent disc; pupil of eye round with dorsal and ventral flaps projecting inward; 5-6 femoral pores in males. Dorsum brown with yellowish, longitudinal dorsolateral stripe (beginning at snout); supralabials yellow; venter yellowish with gray spots (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 552). 
CommentSubspecies: Marcuzzi (1950) examined specimens from Bobare, Lara, and El Pilar, Sucre and questioned the status of the subspecies T. b. kugleri, arguing that colour variation in a species, which appears to be highly variable in this case, is not recommended in the recognition of subspecies. RIVAS et al. 2012 agree with and follow Marcuzzi in not recognizing T. bifasciatus kugleri as a valid taxon.

Type species: Tretioscincus castanicerus COPE 1862 is the type species of the genus Tretioscincus COPE 1862.

Distribution: Cole et al. 2013 do not believe that this species occurs in Guyana despite the existence of one published report (Beebe 1945:23) and one AMNH specimen (R-137364), both of which are probably in error. 
  • Acuña-Vargas, J. C. 2016. Anfibios y Reptiles asociados a cinco coberturas de la tierra, municipio de Dibulla, La Guajira, Colombia. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n. s.), 32(2): 133-146 - get paper here
  • Blanco-Torres, Argelina; Lina Báez S., Edgar Patiño-Flores, Juan M. Renjifo-R. 2013. Herpetofauna from the middle valley of the Ranchería river, La Guajira, Colombia. Rev. Biodivers. Neotrop. 3 (2): 113-22 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1863. Contributions to Neotropical saurology. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14 [1862]: 176-188. - get paper here
  • Disi, Ahmad; Zuhair S. Amr, Nashat Hamidan 2014. Diversity, Threats, and Conservation of the Terrestrial and Freshwater Herpetofauna of Jordan. Russ. J. Herpetol. 21 (3): 221-233 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C. & A. H. A. Duméril 1851. Catalogue méthodique de la collection des reptiles du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Gide et Baudry/Roret, Paris, 224 pp.
  • Esqueda, Luis Felipe, Enrique La Marca, Marco Natera and Pietro Battiston 2001. Noteworthy reptilian state records and a lizard species new to the herpetofauna of Venezuela. Herpetological Review 32 (3):198-200 - get paper here
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Larreal, J.T.; G.A. Rivas; C. Portillo-Quintero; T.R. Barros 2012. Squamata reptiles of a fragment of tropical dry forest in northwestern Venezuela (Lake Maracaibo region). Check List 8(6):1220-1224 - get paper here
  • Marcuzzi, G. 1950. Breves apuntes sobre algunos lagartos de Venezuela septentrional. Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, 26: 73−110
  • McNish, T. 2011. La fauna del archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina, Colombia, Sudamérica. Colomba Andina de Impresos, ISBN 978-958-99518-1-1
  • Medina-Rangel, Guido Fabián 2013. CAMBIO EstACIOnAl En El UsO DE lOs RECURsOs DE lA COMUnIDAD DE REptIlEs En El COMplEJO CEnAgOsO DE ZApAtOsA, DEpARtAMEntO DEl CEsAR (Colombia). Caldasia 35 (1): 103-122 - get paper here
  • Páez, V.P. et al. 2002. Guía de campo de algunas especies de anfibios y reptiles de Antioquia. Universidad de Antioquia, - get paper here
  • Peters, James A. & Donoso-Barros, Roberto 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 293 pp. - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Shreve,B. 1949. On Venezuelan reptiles and amphibians collected by Dr. H.G. Kugler. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 99 [1947]: 519-537 - get paper here
  • Test, Frederic H.;Sexton, Owen J.;Heatwole, Harold 1966. Reptiles of Rancho Grande and vicinity, Estado Aragua, Venezuela. Miscellaneous publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (128): 1-63 - get paper here
  • Ugueto, G.N. & Rivas, G.A. 2010. Amphibians and Reptiles of Margarita, Coche and Cubagua. Frankfurt Contributions to Natural History, Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 350 pp
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