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Trilepida fuliginosa (PASSOS, CARAMASCHI & PINTO, 2006)

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Epictinae, Epictini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesPortuguese: Cobra-Cega 
SynonymLeptotyphlops fuliginosus PASSOS, CARAMASCHI & PINTO 2006
Leptotyphlops koppesi – NOGUEIRA 2001
Leptotyphlops koppesi – SOUZA & JORGE DA SILVA 2002
Leptotyphlops fuliginosus — FRANCA et al. 2008
Tricheilostoma fuliginosum — ADALSTEINSSON, BRANCH, TRAPE, VITT & HEDGES 2009
Trilepida fuliginosa — HEDGES 2011
Tricheilostoma fuliginosum — PINTO & FERNANDES 2012
Trilepida fuliginosa — WALLACH et al. 2014: 738
Trilepida fuliginosa — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Goiás, Minas Gerais, Maranhão)

Type locality: Rio Preto during the fauna rescue of the Queimados Hydroelectric Plant, between Municipalities of Luziânia (16°15’ S, 46°57’ W), State of Goiás, and Unaí (16°21’ S, 46°54’ W), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: MNRJ 10034 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Leptotyphlops fuliginosus is placed in the L. dulcis species group sensu Peters and Orejas-Miranda (1970a), by the presence of supraoculars small, not contacting first supralabial; and generally with the same size or smaller than frontal and postfrontal. The new species can be diagnosed from all members of L. dulcis group, except L. koppesi, by a suite combination of characters: (1) naris located at pupil level, (2) rostral subtriangular in dorsal view, (3) 2+1 supralabials, (4) four infralabials, (5) 10 scales around the middle of tail, (6) maximum total length 303 mm, (7) dorsal colour pattern uniformly dark brown. Refer to table 1 for additional diagnostic features related to South American members of L. dulcis species group. Leptotyphlops fuliginosus differs from L. koppesi (values in parenthesis) in having a rounded snout in dorsal and lateral views (vs. rounded snout in dorsal view and slightly acuminate in lateral view); middorsal scales 198-211 in males, and 210-218 in females (vs. 186-194 in males and 195-208 in females); subcaudal scales 17-20 in males, 14-17 in females (vs. 16- 18 in males and 13-15 in females); up to 303 mmof maximum total length (vs. 337 mm); dorsum uniformly dark brown and venter uniformly cream coloured (vs. dorsum uniform pale brown and ventral colour pattern beige with each scale edge white and the center light brown); inferior portion of rostral scale and labial border cream (vs. uniform brown); frontal scale generally slightly wider than supraoculars (vs. slightly smallest or equal supraoculars); posterior margin of rostral generally reaching the imaginary transverse line between anterior margin of eyes (versus not reaching the transverse line between anterior margin of eyes) [from PASSOS et al.]. 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin adjective “fuliginosus” meaning brown or dark brown colouration. 
  • Adalsteinsson, S.A.; Branch, W.R.; Trapé, S.; Vitt, L.J. & Hedges, S.B. 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of snakes of the Family Leptotyphlopidae (Reptilia, Squamata). Zootaxa 2244: 1-50 - get paper here
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Daniel O. Mesquita, Cristiano C. Nogueira, and Alexandre F. B. Araújo 2008. Phylogeny and Ecology Determine Morphological Structure in a Snake Assemblage in the Central Brazilian Cerrado. Copeia 2008 (1): 23-38 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Guedes TB, Queiroz A, Sousa P, Hamdan B 2020. Updated distribution maps with new records of Trilepida fuliginosa (Passos, Caramaschi & Pinto, 2006) and Drepanoides anomalus (Jan, 1863) (Squamata, Serpentes) in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. Check List 16(2): 423-433 - get paper here
  • Guerra, V., Ramalho, W. P., Machado, I. F., & Brandão, R. A. 2022. Herpetofauna of the Serra do Tombador Nature Reserve, State of Goiás, Central Brazil. Arquivos de Zoologia, 53(3), 33-51 - get paper here
  • HEDGES, S. BLAIR 2011. The type species of the threadsnake genus Tricheilostoma Jan revisited (Squamata, Leptotyphlopidae). Zootaxa 3027: 63–64 - get paper here
  • Martins, A., Koch, C., Joshi, M., Pinto, R., & Passos, P. 2021. Picking up the threads: Comparative osteology and associated cartilaginous elements for members of the genus Trilepida Hedges, 2011 (Serpentes, Leptotyphlopidae) with new insights on the Epictinae systematics. The Anatomical Record, 1– 34 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Passos, Paulo; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Pinto, Roberta R. 2006. Redescription of Leptotyphlops koppesi Amaral, 1954, and description of a new species of the Leptotyphlops dulcis group from Central Brazil (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 27 (3): 347-357 - get paper here
  • Pinto, Roberta R. and Ronaldo Fernandes 2012. A New Blind Snake Species of the Genus Tricheilostoma from Espinhaço Range, Brazil and Taxonomic Status of Rena dimidiata (Jan, 1861) (Serpentes: Epictinae: Leptotyphlopidae). Copeia 2012 (1): 37-48. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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