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Trimeresurus erythrurus (CANTOR, 1839)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesRedtail (bamboo) Pit Viper 
SynonymTrigonocephalus erythrurus CANTOR 1839: 31
Trimeresurus bicolor GRAY 1853 (fide SMITH 1943)
Trimeresurus erythrurus — GÜNTHER 1864: 386
Trimeresurus carinatus FAYRER 1874 (fide SMITH 1943)
Trimeresurus erythrurus — POPE & POPE 1933
Trimeresurus erythrurus — SMITH 1943: 522
Trimeresurus erythrurus — WELCH 1994: 115
Trimeresurus erythrurus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 331
Trimeresurus erythrurus — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Cryptelytrops erythrurus — MALHOTRA & THORPE 2004
Trimeresurus (Trimeresurus) erythrurus — DAVID et al. 2011
Trimeresurus erythrurus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 741 
DistributionIndia (Assam, Sikkim), Bangladesh, Myanmar (= Burma), Nepal, Thailand ? (fide TAYLOR 1965)

Type locality: Ganges Delta Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.19.99 

Synonymy: STEJNEGER (1907) synonymizes Trigonocephalus erythrurus CANTOR 1839 with Trimeresurus gramineus.

Distribution: Possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012). Some authors report this species from Thailand (like Pauwels et al. 2000), others exclude it from the Thai herpetofauna (e.g. Gumprecht 2001).

DIAGNOSIS (DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS).— Scales in 23–25 longitudinal rows at midbody; first upper labial partially or completely fused to nasal; 9–13 upper labials, 1–2 rows of scales separate upper labials from subocular; 11–14 scales in a line between supraoculars; supraoculars rarely divided; temporal scales small, strongly keeled; ventrals: males 153–174, females: 151–180; subcaudals: males 62–79, females 49–61, usually paired, occasionally unpaired shields present among paired series; head uniform green, dorsum bright green, light ventrolateral stripe present in males, present or absent in females (Maslin [1942:23] says that the ventrolateral stripe is absent, but Smith [1943:524] states that it is present in males and variable in females), tail spotted with brown; hemipenes without spines. Total length males 575 mm, females 1045; tail length males 120 mm, females 165 mm. [after LEVITON 2003] 
  • Cantor, T. E. 1839. Spicilegium serpentium indicorum [part 1]. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1839: 31-34 - get paper here
  • Cantor,T. 1840. Spicilegium Serpentium Indicorum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (1) 4: 271-279 - get paper here
  • Das, Abhijit; Uttam Saikia, B. H. C. K. Murthy, Santanu Dey and Sushil K. Dutta 2009. A herpetofaunal inventory of Barail Wildlife Sanctuary and adjacent regions, Assam, north-eastern India. Hamadryad 34 (1): 117 – 134
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • DAVID, PATRICK; GERNOT VOGEL & ALAIN DUBOIS 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1–51 - get paper here
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Tri, Ngo Van; Grismer, Jesse L. 2008. A new species of insular pitviper of the genus Cryptelytrops (Squamata: Viperidae) from southern Vietnam. Zootaxa 1715: 57-68 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Gumprecht,A. 2001. Die Bambusottern der Gattung Trimeresurus Lacépède Teil IV: Checkliste der Trimeresurus-Arten Thailands. Sauria 23 (2): 25-32 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Hoser, R. 2012. A new genus of Asian pitviper (Serpentes: Viperidae). Australasian J. Herpetol. 11: 51-52 - get paper here
  • Hoser, R.T. 2012. A revision of the Asian pitvipers, referred to the genus Cryptelytrops Cope, 1860, with the creation of a new genus Adelynhoserea to accommodate six divergent species (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae). Australasian J. Herpetol. 12:06–8. - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Guinevere O.U. Wogan; Michelle S. Koo; George R. Zug; Rhonda S. Lucas and Jens V. Vindum 2003. The Dangerously Venomous Snakes of Myanmar Illustrated Checklist with Keys. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 54 (24): 407–462
  • Mahony, Stephen; Md. Kamrul Hasan, Md. Mofizul Kabir, Mushfiq Ahmed and Md. Kamal Hossain. 2009. A catalogue of amphibians and reptiles in the collection of Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Hamadryad 34 (1): 80 – 94
  • Malhotra, Anita & Thorpe, Roger S. 2004. A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 83 –100 [erratum p. 680] - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, N.; Barabanov, A.; Ryabov, S. & Khalikov, R. 2002. Diversity of vipers (Azemiopinae, Crotalinae) in East, Southeast, and South Asia: annotated checklist and natural history data (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 23: 177-218
  • Pauwels,O.S.G. et al. 2000. Herpetological investigations in Phang-Nga Province, southern Peninsular Thailand, with a list of reptile species and notes on their biology. Dumerilia 4 (2): 123-154 - get paper here
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
  • Toriba, Michihisa 1994. Karyotype of Trimeresurus erythrurus. The Snake 26 (2): 141-143
  • Vogel, G. 1990. Über eine verkannte Trimeresurus - Art aus Thailand. Sauria 12 (2): 11-13 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Whitaker, Romulus<br />and Ashok Captain 2004. Snakes of India. Draco Books, 500 pp., reprinted 2007 - get paper here
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