Trimeresurus fucatus VOGEL, DAVID & PAUWELS, 2004
Can you confirm these amateur observations of Trimeresurus fucatus?
|Higher Taxa||Viperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)|
|Common Names||Siamese Peninsula pitviper|
|Synonym||Trimeresurus fucatus VOGEL, DAVID & PAUWELS 2004|
Lachesis gramineus — BOULENGER 1896: 555 (part.) (non Coluber gramineus SHAW 1802)
Lachesis gramineus — FLOWER 1896: 896 [part.]
Lachesis gramineus — FLOWER 1899: 695 (part.)
Trimeresurus gramineus — BOULENGER 1912: 217 (part.)
Trimeresurus gramineus — SMITH 1922: 267
Trimeresurus gramineus — 1930: 90 (part.)
Trimeresurus gramineus — POPE & POPE 1933: 7, part.)
Trimeresurus gramineus — HOGE & ROMANO HOGE 1981: 257 (part.)
Trimeresurus gramineus gramineus — WELCH 1988: 137 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — SMITH 1937: 730 (part.) (non Trimeresurus popeiorum Smith, 1937 as defined by VOGEL et al. 2004)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — TWEEDIE 1954: 117 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — TWEEDIE 1957: 121 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — TWEEDIE 1983: 139 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — LIM 1982: 20 [part.]
Trimeresurus popeiorum — LIM 1990: 393, 394 (Fig. 7)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — LIM 1991: 23 [part.]
Trimeresurus popeiorum — LIM et al. (1995: 361, part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 409 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — GUMPRECHT 2001: 29
Trimeresurus popiorum — MASLIN 1942: 23 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeorum — SMITH 1943: 518 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeorum — GRANDISON 1978: 94
Trimeresurus popeorum — DRING 1979: 236
Trimeresurus popeorum — WÜSTER 1992: 23, 24 (Fig. 6)
Trimeresurus popeorum — JINTAKUNE & CHANHOME 1995: 122 (Figs. 178–184)
Trimeresurus popeorum — MCDIARMID et al. 1999: 340
Trimeresurus popeorum popeorum — REGENASS & KRAMER 1981: 186, 181: Fig. 4, part.)
Trimeresurus popeorum popeorum — COX 1991: 384 [the specimen on Pl. 157 cannot be positively identified])
Trimeresurus popeorum popeorum — GOLAY et al. 1993: 103 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeorum popeorum — ORLOV et al. 2002b: 353 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum popeiorum — DAVID & INEICH 1999: 288 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum popeiorum — ISKANDAR & COLIJN 2001: 159 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum popeiorum — ORLOV et al. 2002a: 194 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum popeiorum — LEONG & LIM 2003: 134
Trimeresurus popae — TWEEDIE 1941: 131 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeorum ssp. — VOGEL 1990
Trimeresurus popeiorum ssp. — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 201
Trimeresurus cf. popeiorum — LIM & LIM 1999: 151, 152 (Fig. 3)
Trimeresurus cf. popeiorum — GROSSMANN & TILLACK 2001: 28, 29 (Figs. 17–18)
Trimeresurus sumatranus — NOOTPAND 1971: 48 (non Coluber sumatranus RAFFLES 1822)
Trimeresurus erythrurus — THUMWIPAT & NUTPHAND 1982: 96, 138 (non Trigonocephalus erythrurus CANTOR 1839)
Trimeresurus erythrurus — NUTPHAND 2001: 300
Popeia fucata —GRISMER 2006
Trimeresurus fucatus — DAVID et al. 2009
Trimeresurus (Popeia) fucatus — DAVID et al. 2011
Popeia fucata — DAS 2012
Popeia fucatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 575
Popeia fucatus — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 291
|Distribution||S Thailand, Myanmar (Burma), Malaysia|
MYANMAR: Known only from southern Taninthayi Division (Tenasserim), in the vicinity of Myeik (Mergui) and on Kanmaw Kyun (Kisseraing) Island. — THAILAND. Known from the provinces of Prachuap Khiri Khan (on the basis of a specimen depicted in Wüster , see below), Chumphon, Phang–Nga (Grossmann & Tillack, 2001), Krabi, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Surat Thani, and Trang, and probably occurs in all provinces far-ther south. — MALAYSIA: West Malaysia. Recorded from the States of Perak, Kedah (Lim et al., 1995), Pinang, Trengganu, Selangor, and Pahang, but probably present throughout, except the Cameron Highlands as far as is known. The northern limits of the current distribution is at about 12.5°N, at Myeik (Myanmar) and Ban Pala–U, a locality cited by Wüster (1992) that is situated near the border between Prachuap Khiri Khan and Phetchaburi provinces (Anonymous ; also Pauwels et al. ). This species might be searched for in other suitable localities of Phetchaburi Province (Thailand) and Taninthayi Division (Myanmar).
Type locality: Province of Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. Map legend:
- Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.
NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
|Types||Holotype: MNHN 1990.4283; Paratype: ZSM 4/2004 (orig. PSGV 527), adult, “near Thung Song, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thai- land” (original description), collector unknown, no date.|
|Comment||Venomous! For synonymy and references see VOGEL et al. 2004.|
Diagnosis. —A species of the genus Trimeresurus, characterized by (1) hemipenes long, reaching at least 25 th SC, without spines; (2) 1 st supralabial distinct from nasal; (3) 21 MSR (20 in 1 specimen); (4) overall green coloration in males and females; (5) irregular rusty or reddish-brown dorsal crossbands in most males; (6) a vertebral row of white dots in males, especially those from southern Thailand and Pulau Tioman, conspicuous in life (often invisible in preserved specimens or in living old specimens), present also in females, especially in juvenile specimens from same areas; (7) in males, a postocular streak usually thin, irregular, either entirely white or white below with an irregular, dark red or rusty brown streak above, sometimes totally absent (this streak is often much sub-dued and invisible in preservative); this streak is absent in females, but some white spots may be present; (8) eyes yellowish-green, greenish-gold or yellow-copper in both sexes in adult specimens; (9) in males, a vivid, bicolor ventrolateral stripe, bright and deep orange or red below, white above; in females, a thin, white but well defined stripe; (10) a tail entirely rusty brown or reddish-brown in the northern part of the range, mottled in the southern part; (11) a long tail in males, with a ratio TaL/TL between 0.200 and more than 0.240; (12) a high number of SC in males (at least 69); (13) occipital and temporal scales distinctly keeled; (14) an elongated snout, oblically truncated (from VOGEL et al. 2004).
Comparison with other species. —Main characters separating Trimeresurus fucatus from other taxa of the group are given in Tables 12–13. Trimeresurus fucatus differs from its “northern” relative Trimeresurus popeiorum by (1) the presence of dorsal crossbands in males of most populations; (2) the colour of the tail (see the description) in the northern populations; (3) the colour of the eyes: green or greenish-gold or copper in T. f ucatus, vs. deep red in T. popeiorum; (4) the postocular streak in males, in T. fucat us sometimes absent, or white, or white with a dark red upper part (see Vogel ) vs. always wide and vividly bicolor in T. popeiorum; (5) the postocular streak in females, lacking in females of T. fucatus, faint but present in T. popeiorum; (6) a higher value of TaL/TL in males (0.201–0.241 [x = 0.218, s = 0.001] vs. in T. popeiorum 0.181–0.211 [x = 0.195, s = 0.009]; U = 4.5, P < 0.001); (7) a higher number of SC in males (69–84 [x = 75.9, s = 3.5] vs. 59–75 [x = 68.1, s = 4.2] in T. popeiorum; U = 58, P < 0.001); (8) a more elongated, flattened head and oblically truncated snout; (9) a slightly smaller size in T. fucatus compared to T. popeiorum. Trimeresurus fucatus differs from the Sundaic species of the complex (see below) by (1) the presence of dorsal crossbands in most males; (2) the presence of a conspicuous white ventrolateral stripe in females (also present in Trimeresurus sabahi); (3) the pres-ence of dorsal white spots in many specimens of T. fucatus, although, according to Stuebing & Inger (1999), white dots are sometimes present in Trimeresurus sabahi; (4) higher numbers of ventral scales in males and in females; (5) occipital and temporal scales strongly keeled in T. fucatus, smooth or much more weakly keeled in Sundaic species (from VOGEL et al. 2004).
For abbreviations see T. nebularis.
|Etymology||Named after the Latin adjective fucatus, that could be translated by “with make-up”. It was used in classical Latin language to describe the red and white hues harboured on their cheeks by actors of the ancient Latin theater, and was chosen here in allusion to the bicolor white and red postocular streak present in some males of this species.|
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