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Trimeresurus fucatus VOGEL, DAVID & PAUWELS, 2004

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesSiamese Peninsula pitviper 
SynonymTrimeresurus fucatus VOGEL, DAVID & PAUWELS 2004
Lachesis gramineus — BOULENGER 1896: 555 (part.) (non Coluber gramineus SHAW 1802)
Lachesis gramineus — FLOWER 1896: 896 [part.]
Lachesis gramineus — FLOWER 1899: 695 (part.)
Trimeresurus gramineus — BOULENGER 1912: 217 (part.)
Trimeresurus gramineus — SMITH 1922: 267
Trimeresurus gramineus — 1930: 90 (part.)
Trimeresurus gramineus — POPE & POPE 1933: 7, part.)
Trimeresurus gramineus — HOGE & ROMANO HOGE 1981: 257 (part.)
Trimeresurus gramineus gramineus — WELCH 1988: 137 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — SMITH 1937: 730 (part.) (non Trimeresurus popeiorum Smith, 1937 as defined by VOGEL et al. 2004)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — TWEEDIE 1954: 117 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — TWEEDIE 1957: 121 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — TWEEDIE 1983: 139 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — LIM 1982: 20 [part.]
Trimeresurus popeiorum — LIM 1990: 393, 394 (Fig. 7)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — LIM 1991: 23 [part.]
Trimeresurus popeiorum — LIM et al. (1995: 361, part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 409 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — GUMPRECHT 2001: 29
Trimeresurus popiorum — MASLIN 1942: 23 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeorum — SMITH 1943: 518 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeorum — GRANDISON 1978: 94
Trimeresurus popeorum — DRING 1979: 236
Trimeresurus popeorum — WÜSTER 1992: 23, 24 (Fig. 6)
Trimeresurus popeorum — JINTAKUNE & CHANHOME 1995: 122 (Figs. 178–184)
Trimeresurus popeorum — MCDIARMID et al. 1999: 340
Trimeresurus popeorum popeorum — REGENASS & KRAMER 1981: 186, 181: Fig. 4, part.)
Trimeresurus popeorum popeorum — COX 1991: 384 [the specimen on Pl. 157 cannot be positively identified])
Trimeresurus popeorum popeorum — GOLAY et al. 1993: 103 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeorum popeorum — ORLOV et al. 2002b: 353 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum popeiorum — DAVID & INEICH 1999: 288 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum popeiorum — ISKANDAR & COLIJN 2001: 159 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum popeiorum — ORLOV et al. 2002a: 194 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum popeiorum — LEONG & LIM 2003: 134
Trimeresurus popae — TWEEDIE 1941: 131 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeorum ssp. — VOGEL 1990
Trimeresurus popeiorum ssp. — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 201
Trimeresurus cf. popeiorum — LIM & LIM 1999: 151, 152 (Fig. 3)
Trimeresurus cf. popeiorum — GROSSMANN & TILLACK 2001: 28, 29 (Figs. 17–18)
Trimeresurus sumatranus — NOOTPAND 1971: 48 (non Coluber sumatranus RAFFLES 1822)
Trimeresurus erythrurus — THUMWIPAT & NUTPHAND 1982: 96, 138 (non Trigonocephalus erythrurus CANTOR 1839)
Trimeresurus erythrurus — NUTPHAND 2001: 300
Popeia fucata —GRISMER 2006
Trimeresurus fucatus — DAVID et al. 2009
Trimeresurus (Popeia) fucatus — DAVID et al. 2011
Popeia fucata — DAS 2012
Popeia fucatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 575
Popeia fucatus — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 291 
DistributionS Thailand, Myanmar (Burma), Malaysia

MYANMAR: Known only from southern Taninthayi Division (Tenasserim), in the vicinity of Myeik (Mergui) and on Kanmaw Kyun (Kisseraing) Island. — THAILAND. Known from the provinces of Prachuap Khiri Khan (on the basis of a specimen depicted in Wüster [1992], see below), Chumphon, Phang–Nga (Grossmann & Tillack, 2001), Krabi, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Surat Thani, and Trang, and probably occurs in all provinces far-ther south. — MALAYSIA: West Malaysia. Recorded from the States of Perak, Kedah (Lim et al., 1995), Pinang, Trengganu, Selangor, and Pahang, but probably present throughout, except the Cameron Highlands as far as is known. The northern limits of the current distribution is at about 12.5°N, at Myeik (Myanmar) and Ban Pala–U, a locality cited by Wüster (1992) that is situated near the border between Prachuap Khiri Khan and Phetchaburi provinces (Anonymous [2000]; also Pauwels et al. [2003]). This species might be searched for in other suitable localities of Phetchaburi Province (Thailand) and Taninthayi Division (Myanmar).

Type locality: Province of Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: MNHN 1990.4283; Paratype: ZSM 4/2004 (orig. PSGV 527), adult, “near Thung Song, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thai- land” (original description), collector unknown, no date. 
CommentVenomous! For synonymy and references see VOGEL et al. 2004.

Diagnosis. —A species of the genus Trimeresurus, characterized by (1) hemipenes long, reaching at least 25 th SC, without spines; (2) 1 st supralabial distinct from nasal; (3) 21 MSR (20 in 1 specimen); (4) overall green coloration in males and females; (5) irregular rusty or reddish-brown dorsal crossbands in most males; (6) a vertebral row of white dots in males, especially those from southern Thailand and Pulau Tioman, conspicuous in life (often invisible in preserved specimens or in living old specimens), present also in females, especially in juvenile specimens from same areas; (7) in males, a postocular streak usually thin, irregular, either entirely white or white below with an irregular, dark red or rusty brown streak above, sometimes totally absent (this streak is often much sub-dued and invisible in preservative); this streak is absent in females, but some white spots may be present; (8) eyes yellowish-green, greenish-gold or yellow-copper in both sexes in adult specimens; (9) in males, a vivid, bicolor ventrolateral stripe, bright and deep orange or red below, white above; in females, a thin, white but well defined stripe; (10) a tail entirely rusty brown or reddish-brown in the northern part of the range, mottled in the southern part; (11) a long tail in males, with a ratio TaL/TL between 0.200 and more than 0.240; (12) a high number of SC in males (at least 69); (13) occipital and temporal scales distinctly keeled; (14) an elongated snout, oblically truncated (from VOGEL et al. 2004).

Comparison with other species. —Main characters separating Trimeresurus fucatus from other taxa of the group are given in Tables 12–13. Trimeresurus fucatus differs from its “northern” relative Trimeresurus popeiorum by (1) the presence of dorsal crossbands in males of most populations; (2) the colour of the tail (see the description) in the northern populations; (3) the colour of the eyes: green or greenish-gold or copper in T. f ucatus, vs. deep red in T. popeiorum; (4) the postocular streak in males, in T. fucat us sometimes absent, or white, or white with a dark red upper part (see Vogel [1990]) vs. always wide and vividly bicolor in T. popeiorum; (5) the postocular streak in females, lacking in females of T. fucatus, faint but present in T. popeiorum; (6) a higher value of TaL/TL in males (0.201–0.241 [x = 0.218, s = 0.001] vs. in T. popeiorum 0.181–0.211 [x = 0.195, s = 0.009]; U = 4.5, P < 0.001); (7) a higher number of SC in males (69–84 [x = 75.9, s = 3.5] vs. 59–75 [x = 68.1, s = 4.2] in T. popeiorum; U = 58, P < 0.001); (8) a more elongated, flattened head and oblically truncated snout; (9) a slightly smaller size in T. fucatus compared to T. popeiorum. Trimeresurus fucatus differs from the Sundaic species of the complex (see below) by (1) the presence of dorsal crossbands in most males; (2) the presence of a conspicuous white ventrolateral stripe in females (also present in Trimeresurus sabahi); (3) the pres-ence of dorsal white spots in many specimens of T. fucatus, although, according to Stuebing & Inger (1999), white dots are sometimes present in Trimeresurus sabahi; (4) higher numbers of ventral scales in males and in females; (5) occipital and temporal scales strongly keeled in T. fucatus, smooth or much more weakly keeled in Sundaic species (from VOGEL et al. 2004).

For abbreviations see T. nebularis. 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin adjective fucatus, that could be translated by “with make-up”. It was used in classical Latin language to describe the red and white hues harboured on their cheeks by actors of the ancient Latin theater, and was chosen here in allusion to the bicolor white and red postocular streak present in some males of this species. 
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • David, P., Petri, M., Vogel, G. & G. Doria 2009. A new species of pitviper of the genus Trimeresurus (Popeia) from northern Sumatra (REPTILIA, SQUAMATA, VIPERIDAE). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova 100: 323-346
  • DAVID, PATRICK; GERNOT VOGEL & ALAIN DUBOIS 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1–51 - get paper here
  • Devan-Song, Anne and Mary-Ruth Low. 2016. Trimeresurus fucatus (Popeia fucata) (Siamese Peninsula Pit Viper) Diet. Herpetological Review 47 (2): 318
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Chan K. Onn, Jesse L. Grismer, Perry L. Wood, Jr., and A. Norhayati 2010. A CHECKLIST OF THE HERPETOFAUNA OF THE BANJARAN BINTANG, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA. Russ. J. Herpetol. 17 (2): 147-160 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L.L.; J.L. GRISMER & J.A. MCGUIRE 2006. A new species of pitviper of the genus Popeia (Squamata: Viperidae) from Pulau Tioman, Pahang, West Malaysia. Zootaxa 1305: 1-19 - get paper here
  • Sumontha,M., Kunya,K., S. G. Pauwels,O., Nitikul,A., and Punnadee,S. 2011. Trimeresurus (Popeia) phuketensis, a New Pitviper (Squamata: Viperidae) from Phuket Island, Southwestern Thailand. Russ. J. Herpetol. 18 (3): 11-17 - get paper here
  • Thompson, C. & Thompson, T. 2008. First contact in the Greater Mekong - new species discoveries. WWF, 40 pp. - get paper here
  • Vogel, G.; David, P. & Pauwels, O.S.G. 2004. A review of morphological variation in Trimeresurus popeiorum (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae), with the description of two new species. Zootaxa 727: 1–63 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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