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Trimeresurus macrops KRAMER, 1977

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Kramer's Pit Viper, large-eyed pitviper, Big-Eyed Green Pit Viper
G: Grossaugen-Bambusotter 
SynonymTrimeresurus macrops KRAMER 1977
Trimeresurus macrops — WELCH 1994: 115
Trimeresurus macrops — COX et al. 1998: 20
Trimeresurus macrops — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 338
Trimeresurus macrops — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Cryptelytrops macrops — MALHOTRA & THORPE 2004
Trimeresurus (Trimeresurus) macrops — DAVID et al. 2011
Trimeresurus macrops — WALLACH et al. 2014: 742
Cryptelytrops macrops — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 286 
DistributionThailand, N Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam

Type locality: Bangkok, Thailand.  
TypesHolotype: MHNG 1400.85, male 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Cryptelytrops macrops s.s. is distinguished from all other Asian pitviper species which also have the typical "green pitviper" colouration (uniform green dorsal colour and a lateral stripe present on the first few dorsal scale rows in one or both sexes), except other species of Cryptelytrops, by the presence of a fused first supralabial and nasal scale. It can be distinguished from C. albolabris, C. insularis and C. septentrionalis primarily by the relatively larger size of the eye (most obvious in adults), the relatively wider supraoculars, and the shape of the head, which is more elongate–oval in C. albolabris, C. insularis and C. septentrionalis, but widens quite abruptly behind the eyes in C. cardamomensis sp. nov., C. macrops s.s. and C. rubeus sp. nov. to give a character- istically triangular shaped head. Cryptelytrops macrops s.s. can be distinguished from both C. cardamomensis sp. nov. and C. rubeus sp. nov using the characters detailed above (further details are also given in Tables 2 and 3) [from MALHOTRA et al. 2011]. 

DNA barcodes suggested multiple species within this species (Laopichienpong et al. 2016).

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
  • Barnes, C H & Tipprapatkul, W; 2019. Cryptelytrops macrops (Big-eyed Viper) Defensive tail display. Herpetological Review 50 (1): 154 - get paper here
  • Bulian, Joachim 2012. Bangkok, die Flut und Grüne Mambas. Terraria-Elaphe 2012 (2): 48-49 - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • CHEN, ZENING; JIANPING YU, GERNOT VOGEL, SHENGCHAO SHI, ZHAOBIN SONG, YEZHONG TANG, JIA YANG, LI DING, CANGSONG CHEN 2020. A new pit viper of the genus Trimeresurus (Lacépède, 1804) (Squamata: Viperidae) from Southwest China. Zootaxa 4768 (1): 112–128 - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • DAVID, PATRICK; GERNOT VOGEL & ALAIN DUBOIS 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1–51 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Thy Neang, Thou Chav, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Jamie R. Oaks, Jeremy Holden, Jesse L. Grismer, Thomas R. Szutz and Timothy M. Youmans 2008. Additional amphibians and reptiles from the Phnom Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary in Northwestern Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia, with comments on their taxonomy and the discovery of three new species. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 56 (1): 161-175 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Tri, Ngo Van; Grismer, Jesse L. 2008. A new species of insular pitviper of the genus Cryptelytrops (Squamata: Viperidae) from southern Vietnam. Zootaxa 1715: 57-68 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L., Neang, T., Chav, T. & Grismer, J.L. 2008. Checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the Cardamom region of Southwestern Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2008(1): 12–28 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Gumprecht, Andreas 1998. Die Bambusottern der Gattung Trimeresurus Lacépède Teil II: Die Großaugen-Bambusotter Trimeresurus macrops Kramer, 1977. Sauria 20 (3): 25-36 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht,A. 2001. Die Bambusottern der Gattung Trimeresurus Lacépède Teil IV: Checkliste der Trimeresurus-Arten Thailands. Sauria 23 (2): 25-32 - get paper here
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • JANZEN, P. 2022. Amphibians and Reptiles of Thailand Part 4: The northern part of the Thai Peninsula and again the Namtok Samlan NP. Sauria 44 (1): 13-32 - get paper here
  • Kramer, E. 1977. Zur Schlangenfauna Nepals. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 84 (3): 721-761. - get paper here
  • Laopichienpong, Nararat et al. 2016. Assessment of snake DNA barcodes based on mitochondrial COI and Cytb genes revealed multiple putative cryptic species in Thailand. Gene - get paper here
  • Mahasandana, S.;Jintakune, P. 1990. The species of green pit viper in Bangkok. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 21 (2): 225-30
  • Malhotra, Anita & Thorpe, Roger S. 2004. A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 83 –100 [erratum p. 680] - get paper here
  • MALHOTRA, ANITA; ROGER S. THORPE, MRINALINI & BRYAN L. STUART 2011. Two new species of pitviper of the genus Cryptelytrops Cope 1860 (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from Southeast Asia. Zootaxa 2757: 1–23 - get paper here
  • Maury, Nathanaël; Patrick David & Somchit Sudavanh 2022. THE SNAKE FAUNA OF LAOS WITH NEW PROVINCIAL RECORDS TAPROBANICA 11 (02): 84–93 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mrinalini, Roger S. Thorpe, Simon Creer, Delphine Lallias, Louise Dawnay, Bryan L. Stuart, Anita Malhotra 2015. Convergence of multiple markers and analysis methods defines the genetic distinctiveness of cryptic pitvipers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 92: 266–279; doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.06.001 - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, N.; Barabanov, A.; Ryabov, S. & Khalikov, R. 2002. Diversity of vipers (Azemiopinae, Crotalinae) in East, Southeast, and South Asia: annotated checklist and natural history data (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 23: 177-218
  • Strine, Colin, Inês Silva, Bartosz Nadolski, Matthew Crane, Curt Barnes, Taksin Artchawakom, Jacques Hill and Pongthep Suwanwaree. 2015. Sexual dimorphism of tropical green pit viper Trimeresurus (Cryptelytrops) macrops in Northeast Thailand. Amphibia-Reptilia 36 (4): 327-338 - get paper here
  • Strine, Colin; Andrew Brown, Curt Barnes, Tom Major, Taksin Artchawakom, Jacques Hill and Pongthep Suwanwaree 2017. Arboreal Mating Behaviors of the Big-Eyed Green Pit Viper (Trimeresurus macrops) in Northeast Thailand (Reptilia: Viperidae). Current Herpetology Feb 2018, Vol. 37, No. 1: 81-87. - get paper here
  • Strine, Colin; Silva, Inês; Barnes, Curt H.; Marshall, Benjamin M.; Artchawakom, Taksin; Hill, Jacques; Suwanwaree, Pongthep 2018. Spatial ecology of a small arboreal ambush predator, Trimeresurus macrops Kramer, 1977, in Northeast Thailand. Amphibia-Reptilia 39 (3): 335–345 - get paper here
  • Stuart, B.; Sok, K. & Neang, T. 2006. A collection of amphibians and reptiles from hilly Eastern Cambodia. Raffles Bull. Zool. 54 (1): 129-155 - get paper here
  • Stuart, B.L. & Emmett, D.A. 2006. A Collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from the Cardamom Mountains, Southwestern Cambodia. Fieldiana Zool. N.S. (109): 1-27 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zuklin, Tomas; Nathanael Maury, Saly Sitthivong, Thong Van Pham, Olivier Le Duc, Cedric Bordes, Benjamin Leprince, Charlotte Ducotterd, Lo Van Oanh, Phimphasone Vilay, Vinh Quang Luu, Luca Luiselli 2021. The «Empty Forest Syndrome» and the Herpetofaunal Communities in Laos (South-Eastern Asia). Russian Journal of Herpetology 28 (6): 333-347 - get paper here
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