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Trimeresurus malabaricus (JERDON, 1854)

IUCN Red List - Trimeresurus malabaricus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesMalabarian Pit Viper 
SynonymTrigonocephalus (Cophias) malabaricus JERDON 1854
Trigonocephalus (Cophias) wardii JERDON 1854 (fide SMITH 1943)
Trimeresurus anamallensis GÜNTHER 1864
Lachesis anamallensis BOULENGER 1896
Lachesis anamallensis — WALL 1906: 322
Lachesis coorgensis RAO 1917
Trimeresurus malabaricus SMITH 1943: 513
Trimeresurus malabaricus — WELCH 1994: 115
Trimeresurus malabaricus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 338
Trimeresurus malabaricus — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Trimeresurus malabaricus — MALHOTRA & THORPE 2004
Trimeresurus (Craspedocephalus) malabaricus — DAVID et al. 2011
Craspedocephalus malabaricus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 187
Craspedocephalus malabaricus — GUO et al. 2018 
DistributionS India (Maharashtra (South of Mahabaleshwar – N. Khaire (pers. comm.), Koyna) Karnataka (Castle Rock) [A. Captain, pers. comm.], Kerala, Tamil Nadu)

Type locality: “all the forests of the West coast” [= Western Ghats, SW India]  
TypesSyntypes: lost; formerly at ZSI, reported lost by Smith (1943), Toriba (1993b), Wallach et al. (2014). BMNH 1946.1.19.82 was mentioned as type in older online catalogue but no longer. 
  • BHAISARE, DHIRAJ & ELLIOT PELLING 2015. Trimeresurus malabaricus (Malabar pit viper): Diving behaviour and underwater apnoea duration Herpetological Bulletin (134) - get paper here
  • Bhupathy, Subramanian & N. Sathishkumar 2013. Status of reptiles in Meghamalai and its environs, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5 (15): 4953-4961 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • DAVID, PATRICK; GERNOT VOGEL & ALAIN DUBOIS 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1–51 - get paper here
  • Ganesh, S. R.; Subramanian Bhupathy, Patrick David, N. Sathishkumar, G. Srinivas 2014. Snake Fauna of High Wavy Mountains, Western Ghats, India: Species Richness, Status, and Distribution Pattern. Russ. J. Herpetol. 21 (1): 53-64
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407
  • Guo, Peng; Qin Liu, Guanghui Zhong, Fei Zhu, Fang Yan, Ting Tang, Rong Xiao, Min Fang, Ping Wang and Xin Fu 2015. Cryptic diversity of green pitvipers in Yunnan, South-west China (Squamata, Viperidae) Amphibia-Reptilia 36 (3): 265 - 276 - get paper here
  • Inger, Robert F.;Shaffer, H. Bradley;Koshy, Mammen;Bakde, Ramesh 1984. A report on a collection of amphibians and reptiles from the Ponmudi, Kerala, South India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 81 (3): 551-570 - get paper here
  • Jerdon,T.C. 1854. Catalogue of the Reptiles inhabiting the Peninsula of India. Part 2. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal xxii: 522-534 [1853] - get paper here
  • Kanagavel, Arun; Rajkumar Sekar, Nikhil Whitaker & Rajeev Raghavan 2012. A Malabar Pit Viper, Trimeresurus malabaricus (Jerdon, 1854) morph from the southern Western Ghats. Reptile Rap (14): 27–28 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, Anita & Thorpe, Roger S. 2004. A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 83 –100 [erratum p. 680] - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Murthy, T.S.N. 2010. The reptile fauna of India. B.R. Publishing, New Delhi, 332 pp.
  • Palot, M.J. 2015. A checklist of reptiles of Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(13): 8010–8022 - get paper here
  • Sagar, Uday 2016. Some observations on the Malabar Pit Viper Trimeresurus malabaricus in central Western Ghats, India Reptile RAP (18): 36–39 - get paper here
  • Sawant, Nitin S. and Trupti D. Jadhav 2012. Factors Influencing Habitat Selection by Arboreal Pit Vipers. Zoological Science Jan 2013, Vol. 30, No. 1: 21-26. - get paper here
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Wall, F. 1906. The poisonous snakes of India and how to recognize them, Part II. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 17: 299-334 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Whitaker, Romulus and Ashok Captain 2004. Snakes of India. Draco Books, 500 pp., reprinted 2007 - get paper here
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