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Trimeresurus sabahi REGENASS & KRAMER, 1981

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesTrimeresurus sabahi barati REGENASS & KRAMER 1981
Trimeresurus sabahi buniana GRISMER, GRISMER & MCGUIRE 2006
Trimeresurus sabahi fucatus VOGEL, DAVID & PAUWELS 2004
Trimeresurus sabahi sabahi REGENASS & KRAMER 1981
Trimeresurus sabahi toba DAVID, PETRI, VOGEL & DORIA 2009 
Common NamesE: Sabah Bamboo pitviper
E: Toba pitviper [toba]
E: The Fairy Pitviper [buniana]
E: E: Barat Bamboo pitviper [barati]
E: Siamese Peninsula pitviper [fucatus] 
SynonymTrimeresurus popeiorum sabahi REGENASS & KRAMER 1981
Trimeresurus gramineus sabahi — WELCH 1994: 115
Trimeresurus popeiorum — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 409
Trimeresurus popeiorum sabahi — MALKMUS et al. 2002
Trimeresurus popeiorum sabahi — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Trimeresurus sabahi — VOGEL et al. 2004
Popeia sabahi — CREER et al. 2006
Popeia sabahi — SANDERS et al. 2006
Trimeresurus sabahi — DAVID et al. 2009
Trimeresurus (Popeia) sabahi — DAVID et al. 2011
Popeia sabahi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 576
Trimeresurus sabahi sabahi — MULCAHY et al. 2017

Trimeresurus sabahi barati REGENASS & KRAMER 1981
Trimeresurus popeiorum barati REGENASS & KRAMER 1981
Trimeresurus popeorum barati REGENASS & KRAMER 1981
Trimeresurus gramineus barati — WELCH 1988
Trimeresurus popeorum barati — GOLAY et al. 1993
Coluber gramineus — RAFFLES 1822 (nec Coluber gramineus SHAW 1802)
Trimeresurus gramineus — CANTOR 1847 (nec Coluber gramineus SHAW 1802)
Lachesis gramineus — BOULENGER 1896 (nec Coluber gramineus SHAW 1802) (partim)
Trimeresurus gramineus gramineus — KOPSTEIN 1938 (nec Coluber gramineus SHAW 1802)
Trimeresurus popeorum SMITH 1937 (partim) — SMITH 1943: 518
Trimeresurus gramineus barati — WELCH 1994: 115
Trimeresurus popeiorum barati — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Trimeresurus barati — VOGEL et al. 2004
Trimeresurus barati — GRISMER et al. 2006
Popeia popeiorum barati — SANDERS et al. 2006
Trimeresurus barati — DAVID et al. 2009
Trimeresurus (Popeia) barati — DAVID et al. 2011
Popeia barati — WALLACH et al. 2014: 575
Trimeresurus sabahi barati — MULCAHY et al. 2017

Trimeresurus sabahi buniana GRISMER, GRISMER & MCGUIRE 2006
Popeia buniana GRISMER, GRISMER & MCGUIRE 2006
Trimeresurus bunianus — DAVID et al. 2009
Trimeresurus (Popeia) buniana — DAVID et al. 2011
Popeia buniana — WALLACH et al. 2014: 575
Trimeresurus sabahi buniana — MULCAHY et al. 2017

Trimeresurus sabahi fucatus VOGEL, DAVID & PAUWELS 2004
Trimeresurus fucatus VOGEL, DAVID & PAUWELS 2004
Lachesis gramineus — BOULENGER 1896: 555 (part.) (non Coluber gramineus SHAW 1802)
Lachesis gramineus — FLOWER 1896: 896 [part.]
Lachesis gramineus — FLOWER 1899: 695 (part.)
Trimeresurus gramineus — BOULENGER 1912: 217 (part.)
Trimeresurus gramineus — SMITH 1922: 267
Trimeresurus gramineus — 1930: 90 (part.)
Trimeresurus gramineus — POPE & POPE 1933: 7, part.)
Trimeresurus gramineus — HOGE & ROMANO HOGE 1981: 257 (part.)
Trimeresurus gramineus gramineus — WELCH 1988: 137 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — SMITH 1937: 730 (part.) (non Trimeresurus popeiorum SMITH 1937 as defined by VOGEL et al. 2004)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — TWEEDIE 1954: 117 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — TWEEDIE 1957: 121 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — TWEEDIE 1983: 139 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — LIM 1982: 20 [part.]
Trimeresurus popeiorum — LIM 1990: 393, 394 (Fig. 7)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — LIM 1991: 23 [part.]
Trimeresurus popeiorum — LIM et al. (1995: 361, part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 409 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum — GUMPRECHT 2001: 29
Trimeresurus popiorum — MASLIN 1942: 23 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeorum — SMITH 1943: 518 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeorum — GRANDISON 1978: 94
Trimeresurus popeorum — DRING 1979: 236
Trimeresurus popeorum — WÜSTER 1992: 23, 24 (Fig. 6)
Trimeresurus popeorum — JINTAKUNE & CHANHOME 1995: 122
Trimeresurus popeorum — MCDIARMID et al. 1999: 340
Trimeresurus popeorum popeorum — REGENASS & KRAMER 1981: 181 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeorum popeorum — COX 1991: 384 [the specimen on Pl. 157 cannot be positively identified])
Trimeresurus popeorum popeorum — GOLAY et al. 1993: 103 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeorum popeorum — ORLOV et al. 2002b: 353 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum popeiorum — DAVID & INEICH 1999: 288 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum popeiorum — ISKANDAR & COLIJN 2001: 159 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum popeiorum — ORLOV et al. 2002a: 194 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeiorum popeiorum — LEONG & LIM 2003: 134
Trimeresurus popae — TWEEDIE 1941: 131 (part.)
Trimeresurus popeorum ssp. — VOGEL 1990
Trimeresurus popeiorum ssp. — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 201
Trimeresurus cf. popeiorum — LIM & LIM 1999: 151, 152 (Fig. 3)
Trimeresurus cf. popeiorum — GROSSMANN & TILLACK 2001: 28, 29
Trimeresurus sumatranus — NOOTPAND 1971: 48 (non Coluber sumatranus RAFFLES 1822)
Trimeresurus erythrurus — THUMWIPAT & NUTPHAND 1982: 96, 138 (non Trigonocephalus erythrurus CANTOR 1839)
Trimeresurus erythrurus — NUTPHAND 2001: 300
Popeia fucata —GRISMER 2006
Trimeresurus fucatus — DAVID et al. 2009
Trimeresurus (Popeia) fucatus — DAVID et al. 2011
Popeia fucata — DAS 2012
Popeia fucatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 575
Popeia fucatus — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 291
Trimeresurus sabahi fucatus — MULCAHY et al. 2017

Trimeresurus sabahi toba DAVID, PETRI, VOGEL & DORIA 2009
Trimeresurus (Popeia) toba DAVID, PETRI, VOGEL & DORIA 2009
Lachesis gramineus — BAUMANN 1913: 272 (nec Coluber gramineus SHAW 1802)
Trimeresurus cf. sabahi — VOGEL et al. 2004: 52
Popeia sabahi — SANDERS et al. 2006: 355 (nec Trimeresurus popeiorum sabahi REGENASS & KRAMER 1981)
Trimeresurus toba — DAVID et al. 2009
Trimeresurus (Popeia) toba — DAVID et al. 2011
Popeia toba — WALLACH et al. 2014: 576
Trimeresurus sabahi toba — MULCAHY et al. 2017 
DistributionEast Malaysia (Borneo: Sabah, Sarawak); Indonesia ? (Kalimantan questionable), elevation 1000-1660 m.

Type locality: “Mount Kinabalu, Kulapis River, British North Borneo”

barati: Indonesia (Mentawai Archipelago, Sumatra, Sumatera Barat, Riau and Benkulu, perhaps also Sipora and Siberut Islands); Type locality: “Solok, Sumatra”, now Solok, Sumatera Barat Province, Sumatra Island, Indonesia.

buniana: West Malaysia (Pahang: Pulau Tioman); Type locality: Tekek-Juara Trail at 2° 49’.18.0”N x 104° 10’28.5”E at 295 m elevation, Pulau Tioman, Pahang State, West Malaysia.

fucatus: MYANMAR: Known only from southern Taninthayi Division (Tenasserim), in the vicinity of Myeik (Mergui) and on Kanmaw Kyun (Kisseraing) Island. — THAILAND. Known from the provinces of Prachuap Khiri Khan (on the basis of a specimen depicted in Wüster [1992], see below), Chumphon, Phang–Nga (Grossmann & Tillack, 2001), Krabi, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Surat Thani, and Trang, and probably occurs in all provinces far-ther south. — MALAYSIA: West Malaysia. Recorded from the States of Perak, Kedah (Lim et al., 1995), Pinang, Trengganu, Selangor, and Pahang, but probably present throughout, except the Cameron Highlands as far as is known. The northern limits of the current distribution is at about 12.5°N, at Myeik (Myanmar) and Ban Pala–U, a locality cited by Wüster (1992) that is situated near the border between Prachuap Khiri Khan and Phetchaburi provinces (Anonymous [2000]; also Pauwels et al. [2003]). This species might be searched for in other suitable localities of Phetchaburi Province (Thailand) and Taninthayi Division (Myanmar). Type locality: Province of Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand.

toba: Indonesia (Sumatra); Type locality: “si rambé”, now sirambi, about 13 km se of Balige, off the southern shore of Danau Toba (Indonesia, Sumatra island, province of Sumatera Utara.  
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: MCZ 43608
Holotype: msng 30988, adult female; collected by elio modigliani, 1891 [toba]
Holotype: ZRC 2.6176, adult male; Paratypes: BMNH [buniana]
Holotype: NMBA (= NHMB) 2587 [barati]
Holotype: MNHN 1990.4283; Paratype: ZSM 4/2004 (orig. PSGV 527), adult, “near Thung Song, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand” (original description), collector unknown, no date [fucatus] 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: Partly after VOGEL et al. 2004. Wostl et al. 2016 synonymized T. barati, T. buniana, T. fucatus, and T. toba with T. sabahi. However, Mulcahy et al. 2017 considered these forms as synonyms of T. sabahi.

Internal (former) species numbers: 19504 [toba], 19467 [buniana], 19464 [barati], 19473 [fucatus] 
Etymologysabahi: T. sabahi was named after the type locality in Sabah, Borneo.
toba: The specific epithet of T. s. toba is the name of the volcanic toba massif in which the type locality is located; the same name is applied to the large Lake Toba. it is a noun in apposition.
buniana: The specific epithet is derived from the Malay word “bunian”, which is a small, feminine, mischievous, elf or fairy-like spirit believed to inhabit the forests.
barati: named after the Barat Province on Sumatra in which the type locality is.
fucatus: Named after the Latin adjective fucatus, that could be translated by “with make-up”. It was used in classical Latin language to describe the red and white hues harboured on their cheeks by actors of the ancient Latin theater, and was chosen here in allusion to the bicolor white and red postocular streak present in some males of this species. 
References
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