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Trimeresurus sumatranus (RAFFLES, 1822)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Sumatra Pit Viper
G: Sumatra-Bambusotter 
SynonymColuber sumatranus RAFFLES 1822
Cophias wagleri SCHLEGEL 1826 (not BOIE 1827)
Coluber sumatrensis — BOIE 1826: 239
Trimesurus sumatranus — GRAY 1842: 48
Trigonocephalus formosus MÜLLER & SCHLEGEL 1842
Trigonocephalus formosus — MÜLLER & SCHLEGEL in TEMMINCK 1845: 52
Trigonocephalus sumatranus — CANTOR 1847: 1042
Trimeresurus formosus — GRAY 1849: 10
Bothrops formosus — BLEEKER 1858: 263
Trimeresurus formosus — BOULENGER 1885: 388
Bothrops sumatranus — LIDTH DE JEUDE 1886: 52
Trimeresurus (Trigonocephalus) formosus — MÜLLER 1887: 280
Lachesis sumatranus — BOULENGER 1896: 557 (part.)
Trimeresurus sumatranus — BARBOUR 1912: 201 (part.)
Lachesis sumatranus — DE ROOIJ 1917: 282
Trimeresurus sumatranus sumatranus — LOVERIDGE 1938: 45
Trimeresurus sumatranus sumatranus — WELCH 1994: 117
Trimeresurus sumatranus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 345
Trimeresurus sumatranus — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Parias sumatranus — MALHOTRA & THORPE 2004
Trimeresurus (Parias) sumatranus — DAVID et al. 2011
Parias sumatranus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 538
Parias sumatranus — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 289
Parias sumatranus — GUO et al. 2018 
DistributionIndonesia (Borneo, Simalur = Simeulue, Nias, Mentawi, Sumatra, Bangka, Billiton = Belitung), W Malaysia, S Thailand, Singapore [David & Vogel 1996]

Type locality: Sumatra (Indonesia).  
Reproductionovoviviparous 
TypesNeotype. ZFMK 76340, adult female, designated by VOGEL et al. 2014.
Holotype: unlocated (fide MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999)
Holotype: RMNH 1583, adult male [Trigonocephalus formosus] 
Diagnosis 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: after VOGEL et al. 2014.

Subspecies: Trimeresurus sumatranus malcolmi has been elevated to species status.

Distribution: Does occur in Thailand despite contradictory reports (GUMPRECHT & BULIAN 2003).

Similar species: Has often been confused with T. hageni (e.g in LIM 1982) or T. kanburiensis (KUNDERT 1984, Fig. 106). 
Etymology 
References
  • Adler, K. 1997. Illustrations of reptiles. Fauna 1 (1): 64-71
  • Barbour, Thomas 1912. A Contribution to the Zoögeography of the East Indian Islands. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy 44 (1): 1-203 - get paper here
  • Bleeker, P. 1858. Opsomming der tot dusverre van het eiland Sumatra bekend gewordene Reptilien. Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned. Indië (4) 15: 260-263 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1885. A list of reptiles and batrachians from the Island of Nias. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 16: 388-389 - get paper here
  • Cantor. T. E. 1847. Catalogue of reptiles inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula and Islands. J Asiat. Soc., Bengal, Calcutta. 16 (2): 607 - 656, 897-952, 1026 - 1078 - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Das, Indraneil, Pui Yong Min, Jongkar Grinang and Andrew Alek Tuen. 2014. Parias sumatranus (Sumatran pit viper) diet. Herpetological Review 45 (2): 340-341
  • DAVID, PATRICK; GERNOT VOGEL & ALAIN DUBOIS 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1–51 - get paper here
  • David,P. & Vogel,G. 1996. The snakes of Sumatra. An annotated checklist and key with natural history notes. Bücher Kreth, Frankfurt/M.
  • de Rooij, N. DE 1917. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Il. Ophidia. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 334 S.
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  • Gray, J. E. 1842. Synopsis of the species of Rattle snakes, or Family of Crotalidae. Zoological Miscellany 2: 47- 51. - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1849. Catalogue of the specimens of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Edward Newman, London, i-xv; 1-125. - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A. & Bulian, J. 2003. Die Bambusottern der Gattung Trimeresurus LACEPÈDE Teil VIII: Nachträge und Anmerkungen zur Checkliste der Trimeresurus-Arten Thailands. Sauria 25 (4): 15-17 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A.; Ryabov, S.; Orlov, N.; Shiryaev, K.; Panteleev, D. & Tepedelen, K. 2003. Die Grubenottern der Gattung Trimeresurus LACÉPÈDE Teil VII: Anmerkungen zur biologie, Haltung und Nachzucht von Trimeresurus sumatranus (RAFFLES 1822). Sauria 25 (1): 37-44 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Gumprecht,A. 2001. Die Bambusottern der Gattung Trimeresurus Lacépède Teil IV: Checkliste der Trimeresurus-Arten Thailands. Sauria 23 (2): 25-32 - get paper here
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407
  • Guo, Peng; Qin Liu, Guanghui Zhong, Fei Zhu, Fang Yan, Ting Tang, Rong Xiao, Min Fang, Ping Wang and Xin Fu 2015. Cryptic diversity of green pitvipers in Yunnan, South-west China (Squamata, Viperidae) Amphibia-Reptilia 36 (3): 265 - 276 - get paper here
  • Kundert, F. 1984. Das neue Schlangenbuch in Farbe. Zürich (Rüschlikon), 196 pp.
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  • Lim, Boo Liat 1982. Poisonous snakes of peninsular Malaysia, 2.ed. Malayan Nature Soc., Kuala Lumpur 73 pp.
  • Loveridge, A. 1938. New snakes of the genera Calamaria, Bungarus and Trimeresurus from Mt. Kinabalu, North Borneo. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 51: 43-46. - get paper here
  • Malhotra, Anita & Thorpe, Roger S. 2004. A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 83 –100 [erratum p. 680] - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
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  • Raffles, T.S. 1822. Second part of the descriptive catalogue of a zoological collection made in the island of Sumatra and its vicinity. Trans. Linn. Soc., London, 8 (2): 277-335. - get paper here
  • Ryabov, Sergei A., Nicolai L. Orlov, Dmitry J. Panteleev and Konstantin A. Shiryaev. 2003. Trimeresurus hageni, Trimeresurus puniceus, and Trimeresurus sumatranus (Ophidia: Viperidae: Crotalinae): The data on reproductive biology and methods of captive breeding in laboratory conditions. Russ. J. Herpetol. 9 (3): 243-254 [2002] - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1826. Notice sur l’Erpétologie de l’île de Java; Par M. Boïé. Bulletin des Sciences Naturelles et de Géologie, 9: 233-240. - get paper here
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  • Temminck,V. 1847. Verhandelingen over de natuurlijke geschiedenis der Nederlandsche overzeesche bezittingen, door de leden der Natuurkundige Commisie in Oost-Indie en andere schrijvers. Leijden folio. Afd. 1 Zoologie in 12 afleveringen, met 45 gekl. pl. - Vitg. door C.J. Temminck, Leiden, Leuchtmans u. Hoeck (in comm.) [1839-1847]
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
  • Vogel G, David P, Sidik I. 2014. On Trimeresurus sumatranus (Raffles, 1822), with the designation of a neotype and the description of a new species of pitviper from Sumatra (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae). Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8 (2) [General Issue]: 1–29 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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