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Trimerodytes annularis (HALLOWELL, 1856)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Red-bellied Annulate Keelback, Ringed Water Snake
Chinese: “Chi Lian Hua You She” ( 赤链华游蛇 ) 
SynonymTropidonotus annularis HALLOWELL 1856: 151
Tropidonotus chinensis JAN 1859
Tropidonotus semifasciatus BERTHOLD 1859 (subst. name for T. chinensis)
Tropidonotus annularis — GÜNTHER 1864: 261
Tropidonotus annularis — GÜNTHER 1888: 171
Tropidonotus annularis — BOULENGER 1893: 233
Tropidonotus habereri WERNER 1903
Natrix annularis — STEJNEGER 1907: 291
Natrix annularis — BARBOUR 1912: 130
Natrix annularis — MELL 1931 [1929]
Sinonatrix annularis — ROSSMAN & EBERLE 1977
Sinonatrix annularis — WANG et al. 1999
Sinonatrix annularis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 677
Trimerodytes annularis — REN et al. 2019 
DistributionTaiwan, China (Fujian, Jiangxi, Chekiang, Anhwei, Kiangsu, Hunan)

Type locality: China, Ningpo.  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 6640
Syntypes: ZSM 31/0, male; ZSM 32/0 (lost), 2 fe- males; ZSM 33/0 (lost), 3 juveniles; all from “Ning- po-Gebirge, China”, collected by Haberer, 1900 [habereri]
Holotype: ZFMK 33443 [Tropidonotus chinensis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Sinonatrix): Rossman & Eberle 1977: 42. 
CommentType species: Tropidonotus annularis HALLOWELL 1856 is the type species of the genus Sinonatrix Rossman & Eberle 1977 (in which they included aequifasciata, annularis, bellula, percarinata, and trianguligera). However, Sinonatrix is a junior synonym of Trimerodytes Cope which was resurrected for Trimerodytes balteatus Cope, 1895 (= Opisthotropis balteata) and Sinonatrix by Ren et al. 2019. 
EtymologyNamed after the diminutive form (“annul-”) of Latin “anus” = ring. 
  • Berthold,A.A. 1859. Einige neue Reptilien des akad. zoolog. Museums in Göttingen. Nachr. Georg-August-Univ. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen, 1859 (17): 179-181
  • Blackburn, Daniel G. 1999. Are Viviparity and Egg-guarding Evolutionarily Labile in Squamates? Herpetologica 55 (4): 556-573 - get paper here
  • Böhme, Wolfgang 2014. Herpetology in Bonn. Mertensiella 21. vi + 256 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • GAO, ZHIWEI; TIANYU QIAN, JIANPING JIANG, DEJIA HOU, XUEJIAN DENG & DAODE YANG. 2022. Species diversity and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in Hunan Province, China. Biodiversity Science 30 (2): 21290, 1–15 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1888. On a collection of reptiles from China. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 1: 165-172 - get paper here
  • Hallowell, EDWARD 1857. Notes on the reptiles in the collection of the museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 8 (4): 146-153 [1856] - get paper here
  • Mell,R. 1931. List of Chinese snakes. Lingnan Sci. Jour., Canton, 8 [1929]: 199-219.
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Rao, DING QI & D. T. YANG. 1998. A new species of Sinonatrix (Serpentes: Colubridae) of China with preliminary survey on Sinonatrix. Russ. J. Herpetol. 5 (1): 70-73. - get paper here
  • REN, Jinlong; Kai WANG, Peng GUO, Yingyong WANG, Tao Thien NGUYEN, and Jiatang LI 2019. On the Generic Taxonomy of Opisthotropis balteata (Cope, 1895) (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae): Taxonomic Revision of Two Natricine Genera. Asian Herpetological Research 10 (2): 105–128; DOI: 10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.180091 - get paper here
  • Rossman, D. A., and W. G. Eberle 1977. Partition of the genus Natrix, with preliminary observations on evolutionary trends in natricine snakes. Herpetologica 33 (1): 34-43 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, L. 1910. The batrachians and reptiles of Formosa. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 38: 91-114 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang, C. G. M. Z. X., Jia, S. Y. K. T. L., & Hu, C. Z. J. 2022. An updated species checklist of amphibians and reptiles in Fujian Province, China. Biodiversity Science, 22090 - get paper here
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Wang, Y.Q.; Zhou, K.Y.; Xu, L.S.; Yang, G.; Xu, G.J. 1999. The Evolutionary Relationships of Several Colubrid Snakes Suggested by Sequence Analysis of Cyt b Gene Fragment. Acta Zoologica Sinica 45:332-338
  • Werner, FRANZ 1903. Ueber Reptilien und Batrachier aus Guatemala und China in der zoologischen Staats-Sammlung in München nebst einem Anhang über seltene Formen aus anderen Gegenden. Abhandl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wissensch., Munich, (ser. 2) 22 (2): 343-384 - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
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