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Trimerodytes praemaxillaris (ANGEL, 1929)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Angel’s Mountain Keelback, Brown Stream Snake
G: Braune Bachnatter
Chinese: 老挝副后棱蛇 
SynonymParatapinophis praemaxillaris ANGEL 1929: 78
Opisthotropis praemaxillaris — POPE 1935
Opisthotropis premaxillaris [sic] — SMITH 1943: 332
Opisthotropis premaxillaris [sic] — BROWN & LEVITON 1961
Opisthotrophis praemaxillaris [sic] — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 35
Paratapinophis premaxillaris — MURPHY et al. 2008
Opisthotrophis praemaxillaris — LI et al. 2010
Opisthotropis premaxillaris — PYRON & BURBRINK 2013
Paratapinophis praemaxillaris — WALLACH et al. 2014: 534
Opisthotrophis praemaxillaris — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 225
Trimerodytes praemaxillaris — DEEPAK et al. 2022 
DistributionN Laos, Thailand, China (Yunnan)

Type locality: Chieng-Kuang, upper Laos [19º 52' N, 103º 20' E].  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 1928.0063-0064 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): in Paratapinophis the head is distinct from the neck; the scale ornamentation (keels) is unique in that each scale has a middle row of tubercles (as opposed to a continuous keel or a serrated keel); the scale ornamentation is sexually dimorphic (they occur only on the posterior body of the males); the color and pattern is sexually dimorphic; the body is large and robust; the maxillary tooth count is low (18–20); and there are two pair of posterior chin shields. [...] these character states are not found in Opisthotropis and Parahelicops (from MURPHY et al. 2008). 
CommentSynonymy: Ren et al. 2019 suggest that Paratapinophis is a synonym of Trimerodytes based on morphology but did not provide any molecular data. Deepak et al. 2022 published a 496 bp fragment of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA, which is not much but it appears to confirm the assigment to Trimerodytes.

Habitat: aquatic, inhabiting flowing streams.

Diet: fishes, frogs, tadpoles, freshwater shrimp and earthworms.

Type species: Paratapinophis premaxillaris ANGEL 1929 is the type species of the genus Paratapinophis ANGEL 1929. 
EtymologyThe name of the genus Paratapinophis apparently is derived from a suggestion by H. W. Parker at the BMNH. It is derived from the Greek “para” meaning along side or near, and the generic name Tapinophis Boulenger, 1899. Tapinophis is another genus that was synonomized with Opisthotropis by Pope (1935). Thus, Parker recognized some of the shared morphology between Paratapinophis, Opisthotropis, and Tapinophis Boulenger, 1899. 
  • Angel, F. 1929. Liste des reptiles et batraciens du Haut-Laos recueillis par M. Delacour. Descriptions d’un genere de especes et d‘ une variete d’ophidiens. Bull. Mus. natl. Hist. nat. Paris (2) 1: 75-81 - get paper here
  • Brown,W.C. & Leviton,A.E. 1961. Discovery of the snake genus Opisthotropis in the Philippine Islands, with description of a new species. Occasional Papers of the Natural History Museum of Stanford University (8): 1-11
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Deepak, V; Natalie Cooper, Nikolay A Poyarkov, Fred Kraus, Gustavo Burin, Abhijit Das, Surya Narayanan, Jeffrey W Streicher, Sarah-Jane Smith, David J Gower 2021. Multilocus phylogeny, natural history traits and classification of natricine snakes (Serpentes: Natricinae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 195 (1): 279–298 [online 2021] - get paper here
  • Deuve, J. 1961. Liste annotee des Serpents du Laos. Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. Laos 1:5-32.
  • Murphy, J.C.; Chan-ard, T.; Mekchai, S.; Cota, M. & Voris, H.K. 2008. The Rediscovery of Angel’s Stream Snake, Paratapinophis praemxillaris Angel, 1929 (Reptilia: Serpentes: Natricidae). The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 8(2): 169-183 - get paper here
  • Rasmussen, Jens B. 1982. A new record of the rare Opisthotropis praemaxillaris (Serpentes: Colubridae). Amphibia-Reptilia 3: 279-280 - get paper here
  • REN, Jinlong; Kai WANG, Peng GUO, Yingyong WANG, Tao Thien NGUYEN, and Jiatang LI 2019. On the Generic Taxonomy of Opisthotropis balteata (Cope, 1895) (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae): Taxonomic Revision of Two Natricine Genera. Asian Herpetological Research 10 (2): 105–128; DOI: 10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.180091 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Ziegler, Thomas; Patrick David, Vu Ngoc Thanh 2008. A new natricine snake of the genus Opisthotropis from Tam Dao, Vinh Phuc Province, northern Vietnam (Squamata, Colubridae). Zoosystematics and Evolution 84 (2): 197 -203 - get paper here
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