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Trimorphodon lambda COPE, 1886

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Sonoran Lyre Snake
G: Sonora-Lyraschlange, Westliche Lyranatter
S: Ilamacoa de Sonora 
SynonymTrimorphodon lambda COPE 1886: 286
Lycodon lyrophanes COPE 1860
Trimorphodon lyrophanes — COPE 1875: 38 (part.)
Trimorphodon vandenburghi — COWLES & BOGERT 1936: 41
Trimorphodon lambda lambda — DIXON et al. 1962: 98
Trimorphodon lambda — GEHLBACH 1958
Trimorphodon biscutatus lambda — GEHLBACH 1971: 208
Trimorphodon biscutatus lambda — SCOTT & MCDIARMID 1984
Trimorphodon biscutatus lambda — TANNER 1985: 660
Trimorphodon biscutatus lambda — CROTHER 2000
Trimorphodon lambda — DEVITT et al. 2008
Trimorphodon lambda — WALLACH et al. 2014: 744 
DistributionMexico (Sonora, Chihuahua)
USA (Nevada, Arizona, S Utah, New Mexico)

Type locality: “Guaymas, Sonora”

vandenburghi: Type locality: “Wildwood Ranch near Ramona, San Diego County, California (elev. 1520 feet)”.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 13487, juvenile 
CommentType species: Lycodon lyrophanes COPE 1860 is the type species of the genus Trimorphodon COPE 1861.

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after the chevron-shaped mark on the head which looks like a Greek lambda.

Trimorphodon refers to the three tooth shapes in the upper jaw: the long, recurved anterior teeth, the shorter middle teeth, and the elongate, grooved fangs at the rear. The gender is masculine. 
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  • Bradley, W. Glen and James E. Deacon 1966. Amphibian and Reptile Records for Southern Nevada. Southwestern Naturalist 11 (1): 132-134 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1886. Thirteenth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 23: 271-287 [1885] - get paper here
  • Cowles, Raymond B.;Bogert, Charles M. 1936. The herpetology of the Boulder Dam Region (Nev., Ariz., Utah). Herpetologica 1 (2): 33-42 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Devitt, Thomas J.; Travis J. LaDuc, and Jimmy A. McGuire 2008. The Trimorphodon biscutatus (Squamata: Colubridae) Species Complex Revisited: A Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Geographic Variation. Copeia 2008 (2): 370–387 - get paper here
  • Dixon, James R.;Sabbath, Mike;Worthington, Richard 1962. Comments on snakes from Central and Western México. Herpetologica 18 (2): 91-100 - get paper here
  • Enderson, Erik F.; Thomas R. Van Devender, Robert L. Bezy 2014. Amphibians and reptiles of Yécora, Sonora and the Madrean Tropical Zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Mexico. Check List 10 (4): 913-926 - get paper here
  • Gehlbach, Fredrick R. 1958. A first record for Trimorphodon lambda in New Mexico. Copeia 1958 (3): 222 - get paper here
  • Grant, C. & W.H. Woodin 1946. Trimorphodon lambda, Range extension east Herpetologica 3 (3): 80. - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
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  • Scott, N. J., & MCDIARMID, R. W. 1984. Trimorphodon biscutatus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (353): 1-4. - get paper here
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