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Trioceros jacksonii (BOULENGER, 1896)

IUCN Red List - Trioceros jacksonii - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaChamaeleonidae, Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesTrioceros jacksonii jacksonii (BOULENGER 1896)
Trioceros jacksonii merumontanus (RAND 1958)
Trioceros jacksonii xantholophus (EASON, FERGUSON & HEBRARD 1988) 
Common NamesE: Jackson’s chameleon
G: Dreihorn-Chamäleon 
SynonymChamaeleon jacksonii BOULENGER 1896: 376
Chamaeleo jacksonii — BONETTI 2002: 63
Trioceros jacksonii — TILBURY & TOLLEY 2009
Trioceros jacksonii — TILBURY 2010: 642

Trioceros jacksonii jacksonii (BOULENGER 1896)
Chamaeleon jacksonii var. vauerescecae TORNIER 1904
Chamaeleo jacksonii jacksonii — WERNER 1911: 26
Chamaeleon jacksonii vauerescecae — LOVERIDGE 1920: 163
Chamaeleon jacksonii vauerescecae — LOVERIDGE 1923
Chamaeleo (Trioceros) jacksonii — NECAS 1999: 165
Trioceros jacksonii jacksonii — TILBURY 2010: 642

Trioceros jacksonii merumontanus (RAND 1958)
Chamaeleo jacksonii merumontana RAND 1958: 2
Chamaeleo jacksonii merumontanum — VAN HOOF et al. 2006
Trioceros jacksonii merumontanus — TILBURY 2010: 650: 646

Trioceros jacksonii xantholophus (EASON, FERGUSON & HEBRARD 1988)
Chamaeleo jacksonii xantholophus EASON, FERGUSON & HEBRARD 1988
Chamaeleo jacksonii xantholophus — VAN HOOF et al. 2006
Trioceros jacksonii xantholophus — TILBURY 2010: 650 
DistributionKenya (Kikuyu near Nairobi, highlands of central Kenya except of eastern slopes of Mt. Kenya), Tanzania (Mt. Meru), Kenya (eastern slopes of Mt. Kenya)
USA (Chamaeleo jacksonii xantholophus was introduced to Hawaii fide McKeown 1996)

Type locality: Uganda, later amended to Kikuyu, near Nairobi, Kenya (fide MERTENS 1966: 18)

merumontanus: Tanzania (Mt. Meru); Type locality: Laikinoi, Mt. Meru, Arusha District, Tanzania

xantholophus: Kenya, introduced to Hawaii; Type locality: 3 km south of Meru, Meru district, Kenya. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionovoviviparous. 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.21.81, adult male
Holotype: MCZ 56152 [merumontanus]
Holotype: NMK Lj1796 [xantholophus] 
CommentIllustration: the photo of Trioceros jacksonii xantholophus in SCHMIDT et al 2010: 63 is actually Trioceros jacksonii merumontanus (fide Weiß 2013, Reptilia 101: 64). 
Etymologynamed after the collector of the Holotype specimen, Mr. F. J. JACKSON. 
References
  • Böhle, A. 2006. Jacksons Dreihornchamäleon (Chamaeleo jacksoni). Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 64 pp. - get paper here
  • Bonetti, Mathilde 2002. 100 Sauri. Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp.
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1896. Description of a new chameleon from Uganda. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 17: 376 - get paper here
  • Chiaverano, Luciano M.; Melissa J. Wright, and Brenden S. Holland 2014. Movement Behavior is Habitat Dependent in Invasive Jackson's Chameleons in Hawaii. Journal of Herpetology Dec 2014, Vol. 48, No. 4: 471-479. - get paper here
  • Eason, P. K. & G. W. Ferguson & J. Hebrard 1988. Variation in Chamaeleo jacksonii (Sauria, Chamaeleonidae): Description of a New Subspecies. Copeia 1988 (3): 580-590. - get paper here
  • Glaw, F. 2015. Taxonomic checklist of chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). Vertebrate Zoology 65 (2): 167–246 - get paper here
  • Holland, B.S.; Montgomery, S.L. & Costello, V. 2010. A reptilian smoking gun: first record of invasive Jackson’s chameleon (Chamaeleo jacksonii) predation on native Hawaiian species. Biodivers Conserv 19:1437–1441
  • Kleeck, Melissa J. Van; Luciano M. Chiaverano and Brenden S. Holland 2015. Prey-associated head-size variation in an invasive lizard in the Hawaiian Islands Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, DOI: 10.1111/bij.12634 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1923. Notes on East African lizards collected 1920-1923 with the description of two new races of Agama lionotus Blgr. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1923: 935-969 - get paper here
  • Loveridge,A. 1920. Notes on East African lizards collected 1915-1919, with description of a new genus and species of skink and new subspecies of gecko. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1920: 131-167 - get paper here
  • Loveridge,A. 1936. African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122 - get paper here
  • Lutzmann, N. 1998. Anmerkungen zu einer Nachzuchtstatistik. Elaphe 6 (4): 76-79
  • Masurat, G. 2005. Vermehrung von Chamäleons. Herpeton Verlag, 142 pp.
  • Masurat, G. & Masurat, I. 1995. Chamaeleo (Trioceros) jacksonii BOULENGER, 1896. Sauria 17 Suppl.: 321–328 - get paper here
  • Mckeown, Sean 1996. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians in the Hawaiian Islands. Diamond Head Publishing, Inc., Los Osos, CA,
  • McKeown, Sean 1997. Notes on an established population of Jackson's chameleons (Chamaeleo jacksonii xantholophus) in California. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 32 (5): 101 - get paper here
  • Meek, Seth Eugene;Cory, Charles B. 1910. Batrachians and reptiles from British East Africa. Publication of the Field Museum of Natural history 7 (11): 403-414 - get paper here
  • Mertens, Robert 1966. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien: Chamaeleonidae. Das Tierreich 83: 1-37
  • Necas, Petr 1999. Chameleons - Nature's Hidden Jewels. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt; 348 pp.; ISBN 3-930612-04-6 (Europe)<br />ISBN 1-57524-137-4 (USA, Canada)
  • Ogilvie, P.W. 1966. An antomical and behavioral investigation of a previously undescribed puch found in certain species of the genus Chamaeleo. Thesis, Univ of Oklahoma, 74 pp.
  • Rand, A. S. 1958. A new subspecies of Chamaeleo jacksoni Boulenger and a key to the species of three-horned chameleons. Breviora (99): 1-8 - get paper here
  • Razzetti, E. & Msuya, C.A. 2002. Field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Arusha National Park (Tanzania). Publ. Ed. Negri Istituto, Oikos, Varese, 84 pp.
  • Rödder, D., W. Böhme & S. Lötters 2011. ‘Chamaliens’ on the Hawaiian Islands: spatial risk assessment for the invasive Jackson’s chameleon (Chamaeleonidae). Salamandra 47 (1): 36-42 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, W.; Tamm, K. & Wallikewitz, E. 2010. Chamäleons - Drachen unserer Zeit. Natur und Tier Verlag, 328 pp. [review in Reptilia 101: 64, 2013] - get paper here
  • Spawls, S. & Rotich, D. 1997. An annotated checklist of the lizards of Kenya. J. East African Nat. Hist. 86: 61-83 - get paper here
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147]
  • Stipala, J. 2014. Mountain Dragons - In search of chameleon diversity in the highlands of Kenya. Jan Stipala, 124 pp., ISBN: 978-0-9928176-0-2 - get paper here
  • STIPALA, JAN; NICOLA LUTZMÁNN, PATRICK K. MALONZA, LUCA BORGH-ESIO, PAUL WILKINSON, BRENDAN GODLEY, MATTHEW R. EVANS 2011. A new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae) from the highlands of northwest Kenya. Zootaxa 3002: 1–16 - get paper here
  • Tilbury, C. 2010. Chameleons of Africa: An Atlas, Including the Chameleons of Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt M., 831 pp.
  • Tilbury, C. R. & Tolley, Krystal A. 2009. A re-appraisal of the systematics of the African genus Chamaeleo (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae). Zootaxa 2079: 57–68 - get paper here
  • Tornier, G. 1899. Neues über Chamaeleons. Zool. Anz. 22: 408-414. - get paper here
  • Tornier, G. 1904. Bau und Betätigung der Kopflappen und Halsluftsäcke bei Chamäleonen. Zool. Jahrb. Anat. 21: 1-40. - get paper here
  • Tornier,G. 1903. Drei neue Reptilien aus Ost-Afrika. Zool. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 173-178 - get paper here
  • van Hoof, J. et al. 2006. Kameleons, een fascinerende hobby. Lacerta 64 (5-6): 1-96 - get paper here
  • WALBRÖL, U. 2002. Chamaeleo (Trioceros) jacksonii merumontanus RAND, 1958. Mitteilungsblatt AG Chamäleons 24: 18-21. - get paper here
  • WENDLER, F. 1991. Haltung von Chamaeleo jacksonii in einem Glashaus. 2. Teil. Mitteilungsblatt AG Chamäleons 4: 2-4. - get paper here
  • WENDLER, F. 1991. Haltung von Chamaeleo jacksonii in einem Glashaus. 1. Teil. Mitteilungsblatt AG Chamäleons 3: 4-6. - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2015. Jurassic World im Wohnzimmer. Mini-Dinos für das Terrarium Reptilia (Münster) 20 (114): 26-37 - get paper here
 
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