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Trioceros quadricornis (TORNIER, 1899)

IUCN Red List - Trioceros quadricornis - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaChamaeleonidae, Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesTrioceros quadricornis quadricornis (TORNIER, 1899)
Trioceros quadricornis eisentrauti (MERTENS 1968)
Trioceros quadricornis gracilior (BÖHME & KLAVER, 1981) 
Common NamesE: Four-horned chameleon
G: Vierhornchamäleon
E: Four-horned chameleon, Eisentraut’s Chameleon [eisentrauti]
G: Vierhornchamäleon, Eisentrauts Chamäleon [eisentrauti] 
SynonymChamaeleo quadricornis TORNIER 1899: 259
Chamaeleo (Trioceros) quadricornis – KLAVER & BÖHME 1986: 59
Chamaeleo (Trioceros) quadricornis — NECAS 1999: 183
Trioceros quadricornis — TILBURY & TOLLEY 2009
Trioceros quadricornis — TILBURY 2010: 712
Chamaeleo quadricornis — LUTZMANN 2016: 23

Trioceros quadricornis eisentrauti (MERTENS 1968)
Chamaeleo eisentrauti MERTENS 1968
Chamaeleo quadricornis eisentrauti — POOK & WILD 1997
Chamaeleo (Trioceros) eisentrauti — NECAS 1999: 154
Trioceros eisentrauti — TILBURY & TOLLEY 2009
Trioceros eisentrauti — SCHMIDT et al. 2010
Trioceros eisentrauti — TILBURY 2010: 590
Trioceros quadricornis eisentrauti — BAREJ et al. 2010
Trioceros quadricornis eisentrauti — GLAW 2015

Trioceros quadricornis gracilior BÖHME & KLAVER, 1981
Chamaeleo quadricornis gracilior BÖHME & KLAVER, 1981: 313
Chamaeleo quadricornis gracilior — GONWOUO et al. 2006
Trioceros quadricornis gracilior — TRAPE et al. 2012 
DistributionCameroon (Manegouba Mts., Mt. Kupe, Bamboutos Mts., Mt. Lefo, Mt. Oku), Nigeria (Obudu Plateau). Elevation 1,800–2,250 m.

eisentrauti: Cameroon (Rumpi Mts.); Type locality: Dikume, Rumpi Mts. (above 1150 m elevation), Cameroon

gracilior: Cameroon (Bamenda highlands, Bamboutos Mts., Lefo, Oku), Nigeria (Obudu Plateau). Elevation 1,800–2,400 m; Type locality: Mt. Lefo Massiv 1800 m, West Cameroon.

Type locality: Kamerun, (restricted fide KLAVER 1981:44): Manengouba Berge, Kamerun. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesLectotype: ZMB 14957 (fide MERTENS 1959: 114, non BOHME & KLAVER 1981: 317; fide KLAVER & BOHME 1992: 463).
Holotype: ZFMK 15291 [gracilior]
Holotype: ZFMK 5781 [eisentrauti] 
CommentPERRET (1957) describes some female C. wiedersheimi that were actually C. quadricornis.

Subspecies: Trioceros quadricornis eisentrauti (MERTENS 1968) is considered as a valid species by most authors. 
EtymologyNamed after the four horns the species displays.
Trioceros quadricornis eisentrauti (MERTENS 1968) has been named after Martin Eisentraut (1902-1994), German zoologist. 
References
  • Anderson, C. V. & E. Van Heygen Anderson, C. V. & E. Van Heygen 2013. On the sympatry of three Trioceros species in a tropical upland forest in Cameroon. Salamandra 49 (4): 215-218 - get paper here
  • Barej, Michael F.;, Ivan Ineich, Václav Gvoždík,, Nathaly Lhermitte-Vallarino, Nono Legrand Gonwouo, Matthew LeBreton, Ursula Bott, & Andreas Schmitz 2010. Insights into chameleons of the genus Trioceros (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) in Cameroon, with the resurrection of Chamaeleon serratus Mertens, 1922. Bonn Zool. Bull. 57 (2): 211–229 - get paper here
  • BÖHLE, A. 2004. Die Haltung und Zucht des Vierhornchamäleons, Chamaeleo quadricornis. CHAMAELEO 14(1): 30-32. - get paper here
  • Böhle, A. 2007. Die Haltung von Hochland-Chamäleons. Draco 7 (27): 40-44 - get paper here
  • Böhme, W. & C. Klaver 1981. Zur innerartlichen Gliederung und zur Artgeschichte von Chamaeleo quadricornis Tornier, 1899 (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 4: 313-328. - get paper here
  • Bonetti, Mathilde 2002. 100 Sauri. Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp.
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Euskirchen, O.; Schmitz A. & Böhme, W. 2000. Zur Herpetofauna einer montanen Regenwaldregion in SW-Kamerun (Mt. Kupe und Bakossi-Gergland).IV. Chamaeleonidae, biogeographische Diskussion und Schutzmassnahmen. Herpetofauna 22 (125): 21-34 - get paper here
  • Glaw, F. 2015. Taxonomic checklist of chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). Vertebrate Zoology 65 (2): 167–246 - get paper here
  • Gonwouo, L.N.; LeBreton, M.; Wild, C.; Chirio, L.; Ngassam, P. & Tchamba, M.N. 2006. Geographic and ecological distribution of the endemic montane chameleons along the Cameroon maountain range. Salamandra 42 (4): 213-230 - get paper here
  • Klaver, C. & W. Böhme 1992. The species of Chamaeleo cristatus group from Cameroon and adjacent countries, West Africa. Bonn. zool. Beitr. 43 (3): 433-476. - get paper here
  • Klaver,C. & BÖHME,W. 1986. Phylogeny and classification of the Chamaeleonidae (Sauria), with special reference to hemipenis morphology. Bonn. zool. Monogr., 22: 1-64.
  • Klusmeyer, B. 1999. Das Portrait: Chamaeleo (Trioceros) quadricornis quadricornis Tornier. Sauria 21 (3):1-2 - get paper here
  • Leptien, R. 2003. Getting started keeping chameleons. Reptilia (GB) (26): 11-14 - get paper here
  • Lutzmann, N. 2016. Chamäleons. Immer wieder Neues Reptilia 21 (119): 16-24
  • Mertens, R. 1959. Uber das Vierhorn-Chamaleon, Chamaeleo quadricornis. Natur u. Volk, 89: 114-118.
  • Mertens, R. 1968. Zur Kenntnis der Herpetofauna von Kamerun und Fernando Poo. Bonn. zool. Beitr. 19: 69-84. - get paper here
  • Necas, Petr 1999. Chameleons - Nature's Hidden Jewels. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt; 348 pp.; ISBN 3-930612-04-6 (Europe)<br />ISBN 1-57524-137-4 (USA, Canada)
  • PAASCH, J. 1993. Meine Erfahrungen über die Haltung und Zucht der Vierhornchamäleons (Chamaeleo quadricornis). Mitteilungsblatt AG Chamäleons 6: 2-3. - get paper here
  • Perret, J. L. 1957. Découverte de la femelle Chamaeleo quadricornis Tornier et nore sur les Camélèons du Cameroun. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 64 (4): 79-89 - get paper here
  • Pook CE, Wild C 1997. The phylogeny of the Chamaeleo (Trio- ceros) cristatus species-group from Cameroon inferred from sequencing of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene: evolutionary and palaeobiogeographic implications. Böhme W, Bischoff W, Ziegler T (eds.)Herpetologia Bonnensis SEH, Bonn, pp. 297– 306
  • Prötzel, D. 2007. Haltung von Echsen im Gewächshaus. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (63): 64-70 - get paper here
  • Rogner, Manfred 2014. Chamäleons im Terrarium. Draco 15 (58): 6-22 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, W.; Tamm, K. & Wallikewitz, E. 2010. Chamäleons - Drachen unserer Zeit. Natur und Tier Verlag, 328 pp. [review in Reptilia 101: 64, 2013] - get paper here
  • Tilbury, C. 2010. Chameleons of Africa: An Atlas, Including the Chameleons of Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt M., 831 pp.
  • Tilbury, C. R. & Tolley, Krystal A. 2009. A re-appraisal of the systematics of the African genus Chamaeleo (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae). Zootaxa 2079: 57–68 - get paper here
  • Tornier,G. 1899. Drei Reptilien aus Afrika. Zool. Anz. 22 (588): 258-261 - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F.; Trape, S. & Chirio, L. 2012. Lézards, crocodiles et tortues d'Afrique occidentale et du Sahara. IRD Orstom, 503 pp. - get paper here
  • van Hoof, J. et al. 2006. Kameleons, een fascinerende hobby. Lacerta 64 (5-6): 1-96 - get paper here
  • WEIß, Timo 2009. Vorstellung von Chamaeleo quadricornis gracilior BÖHME & KLAVER, 1981 und Beschreibung der Unterschiede zur Nominatform. Chamaeleo 19 (1): 25-28 - get paper here
 
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