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Trioceros quadricornis (TORNIER, 1899)

IUCN Red List - Trioceros quadricornis - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaChamaeleonidae, Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesTrioceros quadricornis quadricornis (TORNIER 1899)
Trioceros quadricornis eisentrauti (MERTENS 1968)
Trioceros quadricornis gracilior (BÖHME & KLAVER 1981) 
Common NamesE: Four-horned chameleon
G: Vierhornchamäleon
E: Four-horned chameleon, Eisentraut’s Chameleon [eisentrauti]
G: Vierhornchamäleon, Eisentrauts Chamäleon [eisentrauti] 
SynonymChamaeleo quadricornis TORNIER 1899: 259
Chamaeleo (Trioceros) quadricornis – KLAVER & BÖHME 1986: 59
Chamaeleo (Trioceros) quadricornis — NECAS 1999: 183
Trioceros quadricornis — TILBURY & TOLLEY 2009
Trioceros quadricornis — TILBURY 2010: 712
Chamaeleo quadricornis — LUTZMANN 2016: 23

Trioceros quadricornis eisentrauti (MERTENS 1968)
Chamaeleo eisentrauti MERTENS 1968
Chamaeleo quadricornis eisentrauti — POOK & WILD 1997
Chamaeleo (Trioceros) eisentrauti — NECAS 1999: 154
Trioceros eisentrauti — TILBURY & TOLLEY 2009
Trioceros eisentrauti — SCHMIDT et al. 2010
Trioceros eisentrauti — TILBURY 2010: 590
Trioceros quadricornis eisentrauti — BAREJ et al. 2010
Trioceros quadricornis eisentrauti — GLAW 2015

Trioceros quadricornis gracilior BÖHME & KLAVER, 1981
Chamaeleo quadricornis gracilior BÖHME & KLAVER, 1981: 313
Chamaeleo quadricornis gracilior — GONWOUO et al. 2006
Trioceros quadricornis gracilior — TRAPE et al. 2012 
DistributionCameroon (Manegouba Mts., Mt. Kupe, Bamboutos Mts., Mt. Lefo, Mt. Oku), Nigeria (Obudu Plateau). Elevation 1,800–2,250 m.

eisentrauti: Cameroon (Rumpi Mts.); Type locality: Dikume, Rumpi Mts. (above 1150 m elevation), Cameroon

gracilior: Cameroon (Bamenda highlands, Bamboutos Mts., Lefo, Oku), Nigeria (Obudu Plateau). Elevation 1,800–2,400 m; Type locality: Mt. Lefo Massiv 1800 m, West Cameroon.

Type locality: Kamerun, (restricted fide KLAVER 1981:44): Manengouba Berge, Kamerun.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesLectotype: ZMB 14957 (fide MERTENS 1959: 114, non BOHME & KLAVER 1981: 317; fide KLAVER & BOHME 1992: 463).
Holotype: ZFMK 15291, male; Paratypes: ZFMK, MHNG 1365.7-9 (see SCHATTI & PERRET 1997). Paratype ZFMK 15294 by exchange now ZMB 79559, ZFMK 15295 now in UM [gracilior]
Holotype: ZFMK 5781; paratypes: SMF, MHNG, ZMB 79558 (formerly ZFMK 5785) [eisentrauti] 
Diagnosis 
CommentPERRET (1957) describes some female C. wiedersheimi that were actually C. quadricornis.

Subspecies: Trioceros quadricornis eisentrauti (MERTENS 1968) is considered as a valid species by most authors. However, BAREJ et aI. (2010) found only low genetic distances between this taxon and C. quadricornis, hence they downgraded it to subspecific rank. 
EtymologyNamed after the four horns the species displays.
Trioceros quadricornis eisentrauti (MERTENS 1968) has been named after Martin Eisentraut (1902-1994), German zoologist. 
References
  • Anderson, C. V. & E. Van Heygen Anderson, C. V. & E. Van Heygen 2013. On the sympatry of three Trioceros species in a tropical upland forest in Cameroon. Salamandra 49 (4): 215-218 - get paper here
  • Barej, Michael F.;, Ivan Ineich, Václav Gvoždík,, Nathaly Lhermitte-Vallarino, Nono Legrand Gonwouo, Matthew LeBreton, Ursula Bott, & Andreas Schmitz 2010. Insights into chameleons of the genus Trioceros (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) in Cameroon, with the resurrection of Chamaeleon serratus Mertens, 1922. Bonn Zool. Bull. 57 (2): 211–229 - get paper here
  • BÖHLE, A. 2004. Die Haltung und Zucht des Vierhornchamäleons, Chamaeleo quadricornis. CHAMAELEO 14(1): 30-32. - get paper here
  • Böhle, A. 2007. Die Haltung von Hochland-Chamäleons. Draco 7 (27): 40-44 - get paper here
  • Böhme, W. & C. Klaver 1981. Zur innerartlichen Gliederung und zur Artgeschichte von Chamaeleo quadricornis Tornier, 1899 (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 4: 313-328. - get paper here
  • Bonetti, Mathilde 2002. 100 Sauri. Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp.
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Euskirchen, O.; Schmitz A. & Böhme, W. 2000. Zur Herpetofauna einer montanen Regenwaldregion in SW-Kamerun (Mt. Kupe und Bakossi-Gergland).IV. Chamaeleonidae, biogeographische Diskussion und Schutzmassnahmen. Herpetofauna 22 (125): 21-34 - get paper here
  • Glaw, F. 2015. Taxonomic checklist of chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). [type catalogue] Vertebrate Zoology 65 (2): 167–246 - get paper here
  • Gonwouo, L.N.; LeBreton, M.; Wild, C.; Chirio, L.; Ngassam, P. & Tchamba, M.N. 2006. Geographic and ecological distribution of the endemic montane chameleons along the Cameroon maountain range. Salamandra 42 (4): 213-230 - get paper here
  • Klaver, C. & W. Böhme 1992. The species of Chamaeleo cristatus group from Cameroon and adjacent countries, West Africa. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 43 (3): 433-476. - get paper here
  • Klaver,C. & BÖHME,W. 1986. Phylogeny and classification of the Chamaeleonidae (Sauria), with special reference to hemipenis morphology. Bonner zool. Monogr. 22: 1-64. - get paper here
  • Klusmeyer, B. 1999. Das Portrait: Chamaeleo (Trioceros) quadricornis quadricornis Tornier. Sauria 21 (3):1-2 - get paper here
  • Leptien, R. 2003. Getting started keeping chameleons. Reptilia (GB) (26): 11-14 - get paper here
  • Lutzmann, N. 2016. Chamäleons. Immer wieder Neues. Reptilia 21 (119): 16-24
  • Mertens, R. 1959. Uber das Vierhorn-Chamaleon, Chamaeleo quadricornis. Natur u. Volk, 89: 114-118.
  • Mertens, R. 1968. Zur Kenntnis der Herpetofauna von Kamerun und Fernando Poo. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 19: 69-84. - get paper here
  • Necas, Petr 1999. Chameleons - Nature's Hidden Jewels. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt; 348 pp.; ISBN 3-930612-04-6 (Europe)<br />ISBN 1-57524-137-4 (USA, Canada)
  • PAASCH, J. 1993. Meine Erfahrungen über die Haltung und Zucht der Vierhornchamäleons (Chamaeleo quadricornis). Mitteilungsblatt AG Chamäleons 6: 2-3. - get paper here
  • Perret, J. L. 1957. Découverte de la femelle Chamaeleo quadricornis Tornier et nore sur les Camélèons du Cameroun. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 64 (4): 79-89 - get paper here
  • Pook CE, Wild C 1997. The phylogeny of the Chamaeleo (Trio- ceros) cristatus species-group from Cameroon inferred from sequencing of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene: evolutionary and palaeobiogeographic implications. Böhme W, Bischoff W, Ziegler T (eds.)Herpetologia Bonnensis SEH, Bonn, pp. 297– 306
  • Portik DM, Jongsma GFM, Kouete MT, Scheinberg LA, Freiermuth B, Tapondjou WP, Blackburn DC. 2016. A survey of amphibians and reptiles in the foothills of Mount Kupe, Cameroon. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 10(2) [Special Section]: 37–67 (e131)
  • Prötzel, D. 2007. Haltung von Echsen im Gewächshaus. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (63): 64-70 - get paper here
  • Rogner, Manfred 2014. Chamäleons im Terrarium. Draco 15 (58): 6-22 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, W.; Tamm, K. & Wallikewitz, E. 2010. Chamäleons - Drachen unserer Zeit. Natur und Tier Verlag, 328 pp. [review in Reptilia 101: 64, 2013] - get paper here
  • Tilbury, C. 2010. Chameleons of Africa: An Atlas, Including the Chameleons of Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt M., 831 pp.
  • Tilbury, C. R. & Tolley, Krystal A. 2009. A re-appraisal of the systematics of the African genus Chamaeleo (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae). Zootaxa 2079: 57–68 - get paper here
  • Tornier,G. 1899. Drei Reptilien aus Afrika. Zool. Anz. 22 (588): 258-261 - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F.; Trape, S. & Chirio, L. 2012. Lézards, crocodiles et tortues d'Afrique occidentale et du Sahara. IRD Orstom, 503 pp. - get paper here
  • van Hoof, J. et al. 2006. Kameleons, een fascinerende hobby. Lacerta 64 (5-6): 1-96 - get paper here
  • WEIß, Timo 2009. Vorstellung von Chamaeleo quadricornis gracilior BÖHME & KLAVER, 1981 und Beschreibung der Unterschiede zur Nominatform. Chamaeleo 19 (1): 25-28 - get paper here
 
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