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Trionyx triunguis (FORSKÅL, 1775)

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Higher TaxaTrionychidae (Trionychinae), Trionychoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Nile Soft-shelled Turtle
G: Afrikanische Weichschildkröte, Nil-Weichschildkröte 
SynonymTestudo triunguis FORSKÅL 1775
Testudo striata SUCKOW, partim 1798
Trionyx aegytiacus GEOFFROY 1809 (nomen subst. pro Testudo triunguis)
Testudo nilotica — SHAW & NODDER 1810: plates 907,908
Trionyx niloticus GRAY 1831 (nomen subst. pro Testudo triunguis)
Testudo triunguis — CUVIER 1831: 18
Trionyx aegytiacus — CUVIER 1831: 18
Trionyx labiatus BELL 1837
Trionyx mortoni HALLOWELL 1844
Aspidonectes aspilus COPE 1860
Fordia africana GRAY 1869
Trionyx labiatus — SOWERBY 1872
Trionyx triunguis — PETERS 1876
Trionyx triunguis rudolfianus DERANIYAGALA 1948: 30
Trionyx triunguis — ALDERTON 1988
Trionyx triunguis — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Trionyx triunguis — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 47 
Distributionmost of the African continent except the waterways of southern and NW Africa.
White (below Murchison Falls) and Blue Nile drainages, Lakes Rudolf and Albert, the tributaries of the Congo River, W/C/N Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire), and most drainages in West Africa incl. Gabon, Mauritania.
Along the coasts of Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and Turkey, Greece (Kos),
Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan, S Somalia, Kenya, Angola, southwest to N Namibia and west to Senegal; Mali, Central African Republic, Togo,
Gambia (HÅKANSSON 1981), Cameroon

Type locality: Nile River.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: Lost, according to R. G. Webb (pers. comm., cited in Iverson 1992: 318) 
Diagnosis 
CommentTrionyx triunguis has not been found in Lake Victoria. Not listed by ENGELMANN et al. (1993).

Habitat: freshwater (rivers and tributaries, lakes), but enters brackish (”marine”) waters.

For a distribution map see TÜRKOZAN (2007).

See BAUR (1893) for a historical definition of Trionyx and related genera.

Type species: Testudo triunguis FORSKÅL 1775 is the type species of the genus Trionyx GEOFFROY 1809 (non Trionyx OKEN 1816 = fossil Mammalia; non Trionyx HALIDAY 1833 = Hymenoptera). 
Etymologytriunguis means “three-clawed”, referring to the three toes on each hind foot. 
References
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  • Gramentz, D. 1993. Beobachtungen und Untersuchungen zur Ethologie und Ökologie von Trionyx triunguis in West-Anatolien Salamandra 29 (1): 16-43 - get paper here
  • Gramentz, D. 1994. Zur Thermoregulation von Trionyx triunguis am Kükürt Gölü in West-Anatolien Salamandra 30 (2): 143-154 - get paper here
  • Gramentz, D. 2000. Zur Biologie von Trionyx triunguis (FORSKÅL 1775) in Gabun. Sauria 22 (1): 19-24 - get paper here
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  • Kinzelbach, R. 1986. Recent records of the Nile soft-shelled turtle, Trionyx triunguis, and of the Euphrates soft-shelled turtle, Trionyx euphraticus, in the Middle East. Zoology in the Middle East 1: 83-87. - get paper here
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  • Winden, J. van den, S. Bogaerts, H. Strijbosch & V. van den Berk 1994. The Nile Soft-shelled Turtle, Trionyx triunguis, in the Göksu Delta, Turkey. Zoology in the Middle East 10: 57 - get paper here
  • XU, Yan; Qin LIU, Edward A MYERS, , Lian WANG, Song HUANG, Yun HE,Peihao PENG and Peng GUO 2012. Molecular Phylogeny of the Genus Gloydius (Serpentes: Crotalinae). Asian Herpetological Research 3 (2): 127–132 - get paper here
 
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