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Tropicagama temporalis (GÜNTHER, 1867)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Amphibolurinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesSwamplands Lashtail, Northern Water Dragon
G: Papua-Wasserdrachen 
SynonymGrammathophora temporalis GÜNTHER 1867 (part.)
Lophognathus lateralis MACLEAY 1877: 103
Lophognathus labialis BOULENGER 1883: 225
Lophognathus maculilabris BOULENGER 1883
Physignathus temporalis — BOULENGER 1885: 397
Physignathus temporalis — DE ROOIJ 1915: 131
Gemmatophora temporalis — STORR 1983
Lophognathus temporalis — COGGER 1983
Amphibolurus temporalis — EHMANN 1992
Lophognathus temporalis — COGGER 2000: 342
Amphibolurus temporalis — WILSON & SWAN 2010: 352
Lophognathus temporalis — MELVILLE et al. 2011
Gowidon temporalis — WILSON & SWAN 2013: 408
Gowidon temporalis — COGGER 2014: 740
Tropicagama temporalis — MELVILLE et al. 2018 
DistributionIndonesia (Irian Jaya),
Australia (N Northern Territory, Queensland ?, extreme NE Western Australia)

Type locality: Port Essington, N. T. (by lectotype designation)  
TypesLectotype: BMNH 1946.8.28.72, paralectotype BMNH 1946.8.12.63, designated by Cogger 1983, from Port Essington, N. T. and Nickol Bay, W. A. but restricted to Port Essington by lectotype designation.
Holotype: AM R31882, from Mawatta, Binaturi River (as Katow), Papua New Guinea [Lophognathus lateralis]
Syntypes: BMNH 1946.8.12.72, BMNH 1946.8.12.63, from Port Essington, N. T. [Lophognathus labialis]
Syntypes: BMNH 1946.8.28.70-71 (BMNH 1919.8.26.13-14) [maculilabris] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): A monotypic genus consisting of a large agamid lizard in the subfamily Amphibolurinae, with exposed tympanum, gular scales smooth to weakly keeled, ventral scales smooth to weakly keeled. Very long-limbed, prominent erectable nuchal crest. Long tail and head relatively narrow for length. Dorsal scales uniform, with keels converging posteriorly toward midline. Prominent pale dorsolateral stripes that are broadly continuous with wide pale stripe along upper and lower jaw. Lacks well-defined pale stripe between eye and ear. Upper portion of head usually dark grey or black and uniformly coloured. Under the head, on the chin, gular and neck areas, there is dark grey or black uniform pigmentation in adult males, with two narrow white stripes extending from the back of the jaw anteriorly under the chin, parallel to the jaw, ending approximately half way along the jaw. Femoral pores 1–6; preanal pores 2 (range 1–3).

Diagnosis (species): As for genus. 
CommentIllustration in BARTS & WILMS 2003.

Synonymy: Lophognathus lateralis is listed under Physignathus by BOULENGER (1885) but considered as doubtful. The phylogenetic analysis of Melville et al. 2011 concluded that “L. temporalis awaits taxonomic revision”, but it is clearly more closely related to Pogana than to Gowidon / Lophognathus longirostris. The name change by WILSON & SWAN 2013 thus appears a bit premature.

Type species: Grammathophora temporalis GÜNTHER 1867 (part.) is the type species of the genus Tropicagama MELVILLE et al. 2018. 
  • Barts, M. & Wilms, T. 2003. Die Agamen der Welt. Draco 4 (14): 4-23 - get paper here
  • Blamires, Sean J. & Keith A. Christian 1999. Seasonal water loss of the lizard Lophognathus temporalis in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia. Amphibia-Reptilia 20 (2): 211-215 - get paper here
  • Bonetti, Mathilde 2002. 100 Sauri. Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1883. Remarks on the lizards of the genus Lophognathus. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 12: 225-226 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp. - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1867. Additions to the knowledge of Australian reptiles and fishes. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (3) 20: 45-57 - get paper here
  • Günther, R. & Kapisa, M. 2003. Allochtone Populationen der Kragenechse, Chlamydosaurus kingii GRAY, 1825, und des Papua-Wasserdrachens, Lophognathus temporalis (GÜNTHER, 1867), auf der Insel Biak. Sauria 25 (2): 31-35 - get paper here
  • Iglesias, Sebastian; Chris Tracy, Gavin Bedford, and Keith Christian 2012. Habitat Differences in Body Size and Shape of the Australian Agamid Lizard, Lophognathus temporalis. Journal of Herpetology 46 (3): 297-303 - get paper here
  • Macleay, W. 1877. The lizards of the Chevert Expedition. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 2: 60-69; 97-104 - get paper here
  • Melville, J.; E.G. Ritchie; S.N.J. Chapple, R.E. Glor, J.A. Schulte II 2011. Evolutionary origins and diversification of dragon lizards in Australia’s tropical savannas. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 58: 257–270 - get paper here
  • MELVILLE, JANE; EUAN G. RITCHIE, STEPHANIE N.J. CHAPPLE, RICHARD E. GLOR AND JAMES A. SCHULTE 2018. Diversity in Australia’s tropical savannas: An integrative taxonomic revision of agamid lizards from the genera Amphibolurus and Lophognathus (Lacertilia: Agamidae). Memoirs of Museum Victoria 77: 41–61 - get paper here
  • Storr, G. M. 1974. Agamid lizards of the genera Caimanops, Physignathus and Diporiphora in Western Australia and Northern Territory. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 3: 121-146 - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2002. Wasseragamen und Segelechsen. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 127 pp. [review in Sauria 26 (4): 17] - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2004. Bibliographie der Gattungen Physignathus, Lophognathus und Hydrosaurus. Iguana Rundschreiben 17 (2): 18-31
  • Werning,H. 1995. Wasseragamen [water dragons]. Terrarien Bibliothek, Heselhaus & Schmidt Verlag, Münster [ISBN 3-9801853-9-7]
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
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