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Tropidechis carinatus (KREFFT, 1863)

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Rough-scaled Snake, Clarence River Snake 
SynonymHoplocephalus carinatus KREFFT 1863: 86
Hoplocephalus carinatus KREFFT 1863: 403
Tropidechis carinatus — GÜNTHER 1863: 383
Tropidechis carinatus — COGGER 1983: 237
Tropidechis carinatus — WELCH 1994: 117
Tropidechis carinatus — COGGER 2000: 694
Tropidechis sadlieri HOSER 2003
Tropidechis carinatus — WILSON & SWAN 2010
Tropidechis carinatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 745 
DistributionAustralia (E Queensland, NE New South Wales)

Type locality: “near Grafton, in the Clarence River District” [= vicinity of Grafton, NE New South Wales, Australia, 29°42’S, 152°56’E, elevation ~0 m].  
TypesSyntypes: lost fide COGGER 1983: 237, who only indicates a holotype (two specimens, fide Krefft (1869): from Clarence River, NSW, collected J.J. Wilcox. While Cogger states that Boulenger (1896) was in error in citing BMNH 1946.1.18.49 (formerly, Clarence River, presented G. Krefft, as one of the types, it is possible that it is one of the two specimens, although it does not have the measurements and scale counts recorded by Krefft in his description. 

Synonymy: Tropidechis sadlieri is probably a synonym of T. carinatus (Wilson & Swan 2008, Wüster, pers. comm., 15 Dec 2010).

Type species: Hoplocephalus carinatus KREFFT 1863: 86 is the type species of the genus Tropidechis GÜNTHER 1863. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “carinatus” = keeled (like a ship). 
  • Beard, D. J. 1979. Rough-scaled snake, Tropidechis carinatus. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 10: 26-28
  • Beard, Donald J. 1981. Literature: Rough-Scaled Snake, Tropidechis carinatus. Litteratura Serpentium 1 (6): 256 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Günther. A. 1863. Third account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 12: 348 - 365 - get paper here
  • Hoser, R. 2003. The rough-scaled snakes, genus Tropidechis (Serpentes: Elapidae), including the description of a new species from far north Queensland, Australia. Crocodilian, 4 (2): 11-14. - get paper here
  • Kaiser, H.; Crother, B.I.; Kelly, C.M.R.; Luiselli, L.; O’Shea, M.; Ota, H.; Passos, P.; Schleip, W.D. & Wüster, W. 2013. Best Practices: In the 21st Century, Taxonomic Decisions in Herpetology are Acceptable Only When Supported by a Body of Evidence and Published via Peer-Review. Herpetological Review 44 (1): 8-23
  • Krefft, G. 1863. Description of a new species of Hoplocephalus with keeled scales. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 12: 403-404 - get paper here
  • Krefft, G. 1863. Description of a new species of Hoplocephalus with keeled scales. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1863: 86 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Puschendorf, Robert and Voyles, Jamie 2017. Tropidechis carinatus (Rough-scaled Snake) and Pseudechis porphyriacus (Red-bellied Black Snake) Predation / Diet. Herpetological Review 48 (1): 220-221 - get paper here
  • Shine, R.;Charles, N. 1982. Ecology of the Australian elapid snake Tropidechis carinatus. Journal of Herpetology 16 (4): 383-387 - get paper here
  • Shine, Richard; Claire Goiran, Catherine Shilton, Shai Meiri, Gregory P Brown 2019. The life aquatic: an association between habitat type and skin thickness in snakes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, blz136 - get paper here
  • Swan, G.; Sadlier, R.; Shea, G. 2017. A field guide to reptiles of New South Wales. Reed New Holland, 328 pp.
  • Trinca, J. C., Graydon, J. J., Covacevich, J. & Limpus, C. 1971. The rough-scaled snake (Tropidechis carinatus) a dangerously venomous Australian snake. Med. J Aust. 1971: 801-809 - get paper here
  • Ukuwela, K.D.B., de Silva, A., Sivaruban, A. et al. 2022. Diversity, distribution, and natural history of the marine snakes of Sri Lanka. Marine Biodiversity 52, 24 (2022) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
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