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Tropidoclonion lineatum (HALLOWELL, 1856)

IUCN Red List - Tropidoclonion lineatum - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Lined Snake
lineatum: Northern Lined Snake
mertensi: Mertens` Lined Snake
texanum: Texas Lined Snake 
SynonymMicrops lineatus HALLOWELL 1856: 241
Tropidoclonion lineatum — COPE 1860: 76
Storeria lineata — GARMAN 1884: 32
Tropidoclonion lineatum — STEJNEGER 1891: 504
Tropidoclonion lineatum iowae CALL 1891
Thamnophis lineatus — BURT 1935
Tropidoclonion lineatum — GRANT 1937
Tropidoclonion lineatum annectens RAMSEY 1953
Tropidoclonion lineatum texanum RAMSEY 1953
Tropidoclonion lineatum mertensi SMITH 1965: 3
Tropidoclonion lineatum — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 173
Tropidoclonion lineatum — CROTHER 2000
Tropidoclonion lineatum — ERNST 2003: 441
Tropidoclonion lineatum — CROTHER et al. 2012
Tropidoclonion lineatum — WALLACH et al. 2014: 746 
DistributionC USA (incl. Illinois, Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado)

annectens: NE Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas; Type locality: Tulsa, Oklahoma.

iowae: USA (Iowa); Type locality: USA: Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa; 1888.

lineatum: NW Texas, W Oklahoma; Type locality: Kansas. Restricted to vicinity of Kansas City, Kansas, USA fide K.P. Schmidt (1953: 176) and to the vicinity of Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, USA fide L.W. Ramsay (1953: 9).

mertensi: USA (New Mexico); Type locality: Watrous, San Miguel County, New Mexico.

texanum: Texas, Oklahoma; Type locality: F.W. Allen ranch 13 miles south of Bertram, Burnet Co.  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 5922
Holotype: KU 30005 [annectens]
Lectotype: IUMNH 53022 (formerly CMNH 219) [iowae]
Holotype: TNHC (given as Texas Natural History Collection, University of Texas) [texanum]
Holotype: UCM 13478 (University of Colorado Museum), adult male [mertensi] 
CommentSubspecies: no subspecies are recognized by TENNANT 2003, STEBBINS 2003 or Crother et al. 2012, so no subspecies are listed here.

Type species: Microps lineatus HALLOWELL 1856: 241 is the type species of the genus Tropidoclonion COPE 1860.

Phylogeny: Zaher et al. 2019 found this species nested within the watersnakes of the genera Nerodia and Regina. 
EtymologyThe species was named after Latin “linea”, meaning stripe or line.

The genus name is derived from the Greek words tropis, meaning "keel," and klon, meaning "twig," referring to the snake's keeled body scales and small size (Gibbons 2017). 
  • Bergman, Enoch; Hill, Ben; Montgomery, Chad; Hobert, Justin; Boback, Scott; Mackessy, Stephen P. 1997. Geographic Distribution. Tropidoclonion lineatum lineatum. Herpetological Review 28 (1): 53 - get paper here
  • Blair, Kathleen B.;Smith, Hobart M.;Chiszar, David 1993. Tropidoclonion lineatum (lined snake). USA: Texas. Herpetological Review 24 (3): 110-111 - get paper here
  • Blanchard, Frank N.;Force, Edith R. 1930. The age of attainment of sexual maturity in the lined snake, Tropidoclonion lineatum (Hallowell). Bull. Antivenin Inst. America 3 (4): 96-98
  • Brown, Lauren E.; Funk, Richard S.; Moll, Don; Tucker, John K. 1975. Distributional notes on reptiles in Illinois. Herpetological Review 6 (3): 78-79 - get paper here
  • Burbrink FT, Futterman I. 2019. Female‐ biased gape and body-size dimorphism in the New World watersnakes (tribe: Thamnophiini) oppose predictions from Rensch's rule. Ecol Evol. 00:1–10
  • Burt, Charles E. 1935. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16 (3): 311-336 - get paper here
  • Call, R.E. 1891. On a new serpent from Iowa. Amer. J. Sci. (4) 41: 297-299. - get paper here
  • Casper, G. S. and P. Kleinhenz 2016. Geographic Distribution: Tropidoclonion lineatum (Lined Snake). Herpetological Review 47(3): 429. - get paper here
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2009. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 2nd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2010. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 3rd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
  • Conant,R. 1978. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cope, E.D. 1860. Catalogue of Colubridae in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1860: 74-79 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (chair) et al. 2012. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. 7th edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 92 pp.
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Duran M 2021. An annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of North Padre Island, Texas, USA, with comparisons to adjacent barrier island and mainland herpetofauna. ZooKeys 1073: 119-175 - get paper here
  • Ernst, C.H. & Ernst, E.M. 2003. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, 668 pp.
  • Ernst, C.H., & Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of eastern North America. George Mason Univ. Press, Fairfax, VA 282 pp.
  • Force, E. 1931. Habits and Birth of Young of the Lined Snake, Tropidoclonion lineatum (Hallowell). Copeia, 1931(2), 51-53 - get paper here
  • Funk, Richard S.;Tucker, John K. 1978. Variation in a large brood of lined snakes, Tropidoclonion lineatum (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 12 (1): 115-117 - get paper here
  • Garman, Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Grant, Chapman 1937. Herpetological notes from Central Kansas. American Midland Naturalist 18 (3): 370-372 - get paper here
  • Hallowell, E. 1856. Notice of a collection of reptiles from Kansas and Nebraska, presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences by Dr. Hammond, U.S.A. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 8: 238-253 - get paper here
  • Hathcock, C D; Cox, S & Stuart, J N 2018. Tropidoclonion lineatum (Lined Snake) Habitat/Elevation. Herpetological Review 49 (3): 558-559 - get paper here
  • Krohmer, R.W. & R.D. Aldridge 1985. Female Reproductive Cycle of the Lined Snake (Tropidoclonion lineatum) Herpetologica 41 (1): 39-44. - get paper here
  • Krohmer, R.W. & R.D. Aldridge 1985. Male Reproductive Cycle of the Lined Snake (Tropidoclonion lineatum) Herpetologica 41 (1): 33-38. - get paper here
  • LeClere, Jeff 1993. Snakes of Minnesota: Lined snake (Tropidoclonion lineatum lineatum). Newsletter of the Minnesota Herpetological Society 13 (11): 10-11
  • Lynch, J.D. 1985. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nebraska. Nebraska Acad. of Sci., Lincoln, Trans. 13: 33-57.
  • Manning, Glenn J., Thomas J. Belford, Brad Birchfield, Jeremy R. Sloan and James U. Van Dyke. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Tropidoclonion lineatum lineatum (northern lined snake). Herpetological Review 46 (4): 578 - get paper here
  • Maslin, T. Paul; Koster, William J. 1954. Tropidoclonion lineatum lineatum (Hallowell) in New Mexico. Herpetologica 10: 172 - get paper here
  • Newsom, Christopher. 2013. Geographic Distribution: Tropidoclonion lineatum (lined snake). Herpetological Review 44 (2): 276 - get paper here
  • O'Connor, B. J., A. J. Forrester and K. Geluso 2016. Tropidoclonion lineatum (Lined Snake) fire mortality. Herpetological Review 47(3): 487. - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • RADERS, E. P., AND K. GELUSO 2020. Geographic Distribution: Tropidoclonion lineatum (Lined Snake). USA: Nebraska: Howard Co. Herpetological Review 51: 83.
  • Ramsey, L.W. 1946. Captive specimens of Tropidoclonion lineatum Herpetologica 3 (4): 112. - get paper here
  • Ramsey, L.W. 1947. Feeding Behavior of Tropidoclonion lineatum Herpetologica 4 (1): 15-18. - get paper here
  • Ramsey, L.W. 1953. The lined snake, Tropidoclonion lineatum (Hallowell). Herpetologica 9 (1): 7-24 - get paper here
  • SALMON, GERARD T. & DREW R. DAVIS. 2021. Geographic distribution: TROPIDOCLONION LINEATUM (Lined Snake). USA: TEXAS: Kendall Co. Herpetological Review 52 (2): 348–349. - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. 1953. A Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 6th ed. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Chicago, 280 pp. - get paper here
  • Scott, N. J., Jr. 1996. Evolution and management of the North American grassland herpetofauna. In: D. M. Finch editor. Ecosystem disturbance and wildlife conservation in western grasslands: a symposium proceedings. General Technical Report RM-GTR-285. U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, pp. 40-53
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1965. Two new colubrid snakes from the United States and Mexico. Journal of the Ohio Herpetological Society 5 (1): 1-4 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Chiszar, David 1994. Variation in the lined snake (Tropidoclonion lineatum) in northern Texas. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 30 (1): 6-14 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Chiszar, David 1994. Tropidoclonion lineatum (lined snake). USA: Colorado. Herpetological Review 25 (1): 35 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Leonard, Arthur B. 1934. Distributional records of reptiles and amphibians in Oklahoma. American Midland Naturalist 15: 190-196 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Pague, Christopher A.;Chiszar, David 1996. A brood of lined snakes (Tropidoclonion lineatum) from southeastern Colorado. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 32 (1): 24-27 - get paper here
  • Stebbins, R.C. 2003. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 545 pp.
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  • Tye, S.P. & Geluso, K. 2017. Geographic Distribution: Tropidoclonion lineatum (Lined Snake). Herpetological Review 48 (4): 817 - get paper here
  • URBANEK, RYAN; TRAVIS O. WHALEN, HUNTER D. JOHNSON, ANDREW M. DUBOIS & HAYLEY C. URBANEK. 2022. Geographic distribution: TROPIDOCLONION LINEATUM (Lined Snake). USA: COLORADO: Weld Co. Herpetological Review 53 (3): 448.
  • VanDeWalle, Terry 2022. The Natural History of the Snakes and Lizards of Iowa. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa, 384 pp. ISBN: 978-1- 609388-37-9. [review in HR 54 (1): 151] - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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  • Wiese, J.D. & Caven, A.J. 2017. Tropidoclonion lineatum (Lined Snake) Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Gartersnake) Refugia and mortality. Herpetological Review 48 (4): 868-869 - get paper here
  • Wilgers, D.J.; Horne, E.A.; Sandercock, B.K. & Volkmann, A.W. 2006. Effects of rangeland management on community dynamics of the herpetofauna of the Tall-grass Prairie [Flint Hills, Kansas/Oklahoma]. Herpetologica 62 (4): 378-388 - get paper here
  • Winter, E.M. & Geluso, K. 2017. Geographic Distribution: Tropidoclonion lineatum (Lined Snake). Herpetological Review 48 (4): 817 - get paper here
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