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Tropidolaemus subannulatus (GRAY, 1842)

IUCN Red List - Tropidolaemus subannulatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: North Philippine temple pitviper
G: Philippinische Tempelviper 
SynonymTrimeresurus subannulatus GRAY 1842: 48
Trigonocephalus wagleri var. celebensis GRAY 1849
Trimeresurus subannulatus — BOULENGER 1894: 85
Trimeresurus wagleri alboviridis TAYLOR 1917 (fide LEVITON 1964)
Tropidolaemus subannulatus — KUCH et al. 2007
Trimeresurus wagleri subannulatus — RELOX et al. 2011
Tropidolaemus (subannulatus) celebensis — KOCH 2012
Tropidolaemus subannulatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 748 
DistributionBrunei (Das (2007), Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak on Borneo
[Stuebing & Inger, 1999; Malkmus et al., 2002]),
Indonesia (Belitung, Borneo: Kalimantan, Buton, Kalimantan, Sangihe Archipelago, and Sulawesi), Philippines (Balabac, Basilan, Bohol, Dinagat, Jolo, Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Samar, Sibutu, and Tumindao [Alcala, 1986], Cebu, Romblon)

Type locality: The Philippines [Mindanao]  
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1946.1.19.32- 33 (formerly BMNH i.2.6a and c).
Type(s): BMNH, received from "Mus. Leyden." [celebensis]
Holotype: CM R2433 (originally EHT 432) [alboviridis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A species of the genus Tropidolaemus, characterized by (1) the internasals separated by 2 (rarely 1) scales, never in contact; (2) a background colour in the shades of green, namely green, blue or green and blue ground in females, green (blue in some Negros populations) in males and juveniles; (3) crossbands around the body blue and white, red and white, blue, blue and red or white in adult females, white parts can be light blue in life, white spots or white and red spots in males and juveniles; (4) a variable postocular stripe in adult females and a white and red one in juveniles and males; (5) in adult females the belly is uniform or blotched with blue or red, never banded, in males and juveniles the belly is uniform or with red dots; (6) 128– 148 VEN in males and 127–147 in females, SC: 45–53 in males and 40–54 in females; (7) 21–23 MSR in males and 21–29 in females, keeling variable in both sexes; (9) 4–7 scales on the snout at males and 5 – 8 in females; (10) 3rd SL nearly always (87 / 90 occurrences) separated from the subocular by 1 scale or 2 scales, without sexual dimorphism; (10) tail long in males, with a ratio TaL/TL between 0.146 and 0.182, moderate to long in females, 0.139–0.183; (11) occipital scales distinctly keeled in males (from VOGEL et al. 2007). 

Synonymy: Trimesurus subannulatus Gray, 1842 was synonymised with Trimeresurus wagleri by Günther (1864: 388) and McDIARMID et al. 1999.

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
  • AMARGA, A. K. S., & Christian E. SUPSUP 2020. First report of Tropidolaemus subannulatus (Gray 1842) from Romblon Island Group, Central Philippines. SEAVR 2020: 047‐049
  • ARIFIN, UMILAELA; DJOKO T. ISKANDAR and ROSITA ELIANUR 2011. Herpetofauna Diversity Of Karimata Island-Indonesia. Proceedings of the Conference “Biology of the Amphibians in the Sunda Region, South-east Asia”. Organized by Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 28–30 September 2009. pp:1–7. Edited by Indraneil Das et al.. Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conse - get paper here
  • Binaday, Jake Wilson B. 2017. Tropidolaemus subannulatus (Northern Temple Pit Viper) Morphology. Herpetological Review 48 (1): 221 - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1894. On the herpetological fauna of Palawan and Balabac. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 14: 81-90 - get paper here
  • Brown; Rafe; Cameron Siler, Carl Oliveros, Luke Welton, Ashley Rock, John Swab, Merlijn Van Weerd, Jonah van Beijnen, Dominic Rodriguez, Edmund Jose, Arvin Diesmos 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range. ZooKeys 266 (2013) Special Issue: 1-120<br />doi: 10.3897/zookeys.266.3982 - get paper here
  • Dehling, J. M. & Dehling, D. M. 2012. Tropidolaemus subannulatus (Bornean banded pitviper) diet. Herpetological Review 43: 499 - get paper here
  • Gaulke, M. 2011. The herpetofauna of Panay Island, Philippines. Edition Chimaira, 390 pp.
  • Gaulke, M. 2019. Zur Schlangenfauna der philippinischen Insel Panay. Elaphe 2019 (2): 46-57
  • Gojo-Cruz, Paul Henric P. and Leticia E. Afuang 2018. The Zoogeographic Significance of Caraballo Mountain Range, Luzon Island, Philippines With Focus on the Biogeography of Luzon’s Herpetofauna. Philippine Journal of Science 147 (3): 393-409 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1842. Synopsis of the species of Rattle snakes, or Family of Crotalidae. Zoological Miscellany 2: 47- 51. - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1849. Catalogue of the specimens of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Edward Newman, London, i-xv; 1-125. - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Hilger, Axel 2015. Unterwegs zu den letzten wilden Paradiesen im Land der Kopfjäger auf Borneo. Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (2): 14-18 - get paper here
  • Hoer, K. 2013. 27 Jahre Terrarianer – eine Zeitreise. Ophidia 7 (1): 25-33 - get paper here
  • Janzen, Peter 2022. Herpetofauna in Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo) – Part 2 Reptiles. Sauria 44 (3): 3-28
  • Koch, A. 2012. Discovery, Diversity, and Distribution of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Sulawesi and its offshore islands. Edition Chimaira, 374 pp. [ISBN 978-3-89973-432-4] - get paper here
  • Kuch, U.; Gumprecht, A. & Melaun, C. 2007. A new species of Temple Pitviper (Tropidolaemus Wagler, 1830) from Sulawesi, Indonesia (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae). Zootaxa 1446: 1–20 - get paper here
  • Leviton, A.E., R.M. Brown, and C.D. Siler. 2014. The dangerously venomous snakes of the Philippine Archipelago. in The Coral Triangle: The 2011 Hearst Biodiversity Philippine Expedition (G.C. Williams and T.M. Gosliner, eds.). California Academy of Sciences, USA, Pp 473–530
  • Malaki, Archiebald Baltazar B.; Steve Michael T. Alcazar, Edgardo P. Lillo,<br />Raamah C. Rosales, Bernardo A. Redoblado, John Lou B. Diaz,<br />and Inocencio E. Buot Jr. 2020. First Distribution Record of North Philippine Temple Pitviper (Tropidolaemus subannulatus Gray, 1842) on Cebu Island, Philippines. Philippine Journal of Science 149 (3): 671-675 - get paper here
  • MCLEOD, David S.; Cameron D. SILER, Arvin C. DIESMOS, Mae L. DIESMOS, Vhon S. GARCIA, Angela O. ARKONCEO, Kelvin L. BALAQUIT, Charlene C. UY, Mariden M. VILLASERAN, Earle C. YARRA, Rafe M. BROWN 2011. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island, V: The Herpetofauna of Angat Dam Watershed, Bulacan Province, Luzon Island, Philippines. Asian Herpetological Research 2 (4): 177–198 - get paper here
  • Prill, Madlen & Maximilian Dehling 2021. Amphibien und Reptilien des Bako-Nationalparks, Borneo. Elaphe 2021 (5): 38-49
  • Relox, Richel E.; Emmanuel P. Leańo, and Fritzie B. Ates-Camino 2011. Herpetofaunal Endemism And Diversity in Tropical Forests of Mt. Hamiguitan in the Philippines. Herp. Cons. Biol. 6 (1): 107−113 - get paper here
  • Sanguila MB, Cobb KA, Siler CD, Diesmos AC, Alcala AC, Brown RM 2016. The amphibians and reptiles of Mindanao Island, southern Philippines, II: the herpetofauna of northeast Mindanao and adjacent islands. ZooKeys 624: 1–132, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.624.9814 - get paper here
  • Stuebing, R.B., Inger, R.F. & Lardner, B. 2014. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo, second edition. Natural history Publications (Borneo)
  • Supsup CE, Asis AA, Carestia Jr UV, Diesmos AC, Mallari NAD, Brown RM 2020. Variation in species richness, composition and herpetological community structure across a tropical habitat gradient of Palawan Island, Philippines. Herpetozoa 33: 95-111 - get paper here
  • Venturina, R. E. L., Diesmos, M. L. L., Maglangit, E. P. T., del Prado, Y. L. C., Ordas, J. A. D., Fernandez, J. B., ... & Diesmos, A. C. 2023. Herpetofauna of Mount Capistrano, a Fragmented Limestone Karst Forest in Central Mindanao, Philippines. Philippine Journal of Science, 152(6A), 2031-2048
  • Vogel, G.; David, P.; Lutz, M.; van Rooijen, J. & Vidal, N. 2007. Revision of the Tropidolaemus wagleri-complex (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae). I. Definition of included taxa and redescription of Tropidolaemus wagleri (Boie, 1827). Zootaxa 1644: 1–40 - get paper here
  • Vogel, Gernot 2010. Zur Systematik der Schlangen der orientalischen Region: Forschungsdefizite führen zur Unterschätzung der Artenvielfalt. Ophidia 4 (2): 18-26 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wanger, T. C., I. Motzke, S. Saleh & D. T. Iskandar 2011. The amphibians and reptiles of the Lore Lindu National Park area, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Salamandra 47 (1): 17-29 - get paper here
  • Weinell, Jeffrey L.; Errol Hooper, Alan E. Leviton, Rafe M. Brown 2019. Illustrated Key to the Snakes of the Philippines. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 66 (1): 1-49 - get paper here
  • YANG Jian‐Huan, Joanne LI, LI Fei, Bosco CHAN 2018. Recent amphibians and reptiles observed at Matang Wildlife Centre, Sarawak, Borneo. SEAVR 2018: 062‐068
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