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Tropidurus guarani ALVAREZ, CEI & SCOLARO, 1994

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Higher TaxaTropiduridae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymTropidurus spinulosus guarani ALVAREZ, CEI & SCOLARO 1994
Tropidurus guarani — HARVEY & GUTBERLET 1998
Tropidurus guarani — CARVALHO 2016
Tropidurus guarani — CACCIALI & KÖHLER 2018 
DistributionS Paraguay, Brazil

Type locality: "Cerro Hu, Departamento Paraguarí, Paraguay (25° 30' S, 57° 00' W)  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: FML (Colección Herpetológica de la Fundación “Miguel Lillo”). Paratype: UNNE (= UNNEC) 
Diagnosis 
CommentHabitat: rocks, trees

Distribution: see map in CARVALHO 2016: 3 (Fig. 1).

Cacciali & Köhler 2018, based on the mitochondrial genes 16S and COI revealed that specimens from the regions occupied by the nominal species “T. guarani” and T. spinulosus are very closely related (Fig. 4A–B), rendering T. spinulosus paraphyletic if “T. guarani” is accepted as a valid species. Also, 16S sequrences and other evidence suggests guarani is synonymous with spinulosus. 
Etymology 
References
  • Alvarez B B. Cei J M. Scolaro J A. 1994. A new subspecies of Tropidurus spinulosus (Cope 1862) from the subtropical wet mesic Paraguayan region (Reptilia Squamata Tropiduridae). Tropical Zoology 7 (1): 161-179 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Cabral Beconi, Hugo Enrique; Weiler, Andrea 2014. Lista comentada de los reptiles de la Colección Zoológica de la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales de Asunción, Paraguay [CZCEN]. Cuad. herpetol. 28 (1): 19-28 - get paper here
  • CACCIALI, PIER & GUNTHER KÖHLER 2018. Diversity of Tropidurus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) in Paraguay—an integrative taxonomic approach based on morphological and molecular genetic evidence. Zootaxa 4375 (4): 511–536
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • CARREIRA, S., M. MENEGHEL AND F. ACHAVAL 2005. Reptiles de Uruguay. DI.R.A.C., Facultad de Ciências Ed., Montevideo, 637 pp.
  • Carvalho, André Luiz G. 2016. Three New Species of the Tropidurus spinulosus Group (Squamata: Tropiduridae) from Eastern Paraguay. American Museum Novitates (3853): 1-44 - get paper here
  • CARVALHO, ANDRÉ LUIZ GOMES DE 2013. On the distribution and conservation of the South American lizard genus Tropidurus Wied-Neuwied, 1825 (Squamata: Tropiduridae). Zootaxa 3640 (1): 042–056 - get paper here
  • Céspedez, J.A. y B.B. Álvarez 2005. LISTA DE EJEMPLARES TIPOS Y DE ESPECIES DE LA COLECCIÓN HERPETOLÓGICA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DEL NORDESTE, CORRIENTES, ARGENTINA (UNNEC). Facena 21: 139-144
  • Costa, Henrique Caldeira & Renato Silveira Bérnils 2015. Répteis brasileiros: lista de espécies 2015. Herpetologia Brasileira 4 (3): 75-93
  • Frost, Darrel R., Miguel T. Rodrigues, Taran Grant, and Tom A. Titus 2001. Phylogenetics of the Lizard Genus Tropidurus (Squamata: Tropiduridae: Tropidurinae): Direct Optimization, Descriptive Efficiency, and Sensitivity Analysis of Congruence Between Molecular Data and Morphology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 21 (3): 352–371 - get paper here
  • Harvey, M. B. & R. L. J. Gutberlet 1998. Lizards of the genus Tropidurus (Iguania: Tropiduridae) from the Serrania de Huanchaca, Bolivia: new species, natural history, and a key to the genus. Herpetologica 54 (4): 493-520. - get paper here
  • Uetanabaro, Masao; Franco Leandro Souza, Paulo Landgref Filho,<br />Arlindo Figueira Beda & Reuber Albuquerque Brandão 2007. Anfíbios e répteis do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Biota Neotropica v7 (n3) - get paper here
 
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