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Tropidurus sertanejo CARVALHO, SENA, PELOSO, MACHADO, MONTESINOS, SILVA, CAMPBELL & RODRIGUES, 2016

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Higher TaxaTropiduridae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymTropidurus sertanejo CARVALHO, SENA, PELOSO, MACHADO, MONTESINOS, SILVA, CAMPBELL & RODRIGUES 2016 
DistributionBrazil (Bahia)

Type locality: Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Pé da Serra, Serra do Arame, Municipality of Ibotirama, State of Bahia, Brazil, (12° 08′ 45.21 S, 43° 03′ 20.83 W, WGS84 system; ~507 m elevation.  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: MZUSP 104273, adult male, collected by A.L.G.C., P.L.V.P., and R.M. in 28 July 2013.
Allotype: MZUSP 104274, adult female, collected with the holotype (12° 08′ 41.99 S, 43° 03′ 08.32 W, WGS84 system, ~516 m above sea level). Paratypes: MZUSP 104272, juvenile, collected with the holotype (12° 08′ 41.99 S, 43° 03′ 08.32 W, WGS84 system; ~516 m above sea level) by A.L.G.C., P.L.V.P., and R.M. on 28 July 2013. MZUSP 105262 (= RU 6311), adult male, MZUSP 105263 (= RU 6312), adult female, MZUSP 105261 (= RU 6310) and MZUSP 105264–65 (= RU 6313–14), three juveniles, collected in the type locality (12° 08′ 40.06 S, 43° 03′ 23.40 W, WGS84 system; ~490 m above sea level) by A.L.G.C., H.R.S., and R.M. on 22 July 2009. MZUSP 105266–69 (= RU 6353–6356): four juve- niles, collected in the type locality (12° 08′ 40.06 S, 43° 03′ 23.40′′ W, WGS84 system; ~490 m above sea level) by A.L.G.C., H.R.S., and R.M. on 22 July 2009. MZUSP 76048–49, 76055, three adult males, MZUSP 76050-52, three adult females, MZUSP 76046–47, 76053–54, 76056–58, seven juveniles collected in the municipality of Caetité, State of Bahia, Brazil (14° 04′ 17.82 S, 42° 29′ 48.33′′ W, WGS84 system; ~940 m above sea level), by M.T.R. on 19 September 1991. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Tropidurus sertanejo, n. sp., is diagnosed based on a combina- tion of macrostructural characters7 suggested by Frost et al. (2001) as exclusive to Tropidurus: skull not highly elevated at the level of the orbits; premaxilla not broad; nutritive foramina of maxilla strikingly enlarged; lingual process of dentary present, extending over lingual dentary process of coronoid; angular strongly reduced; medial centrale absent; “flash” marks on under- sides of thighs present; circumorbitals distinct from other small supraorbital scales; lateral fringe not developed on both sides of fourth toes; enlarged middorsal scale row absent; and tail terete. Frost et al. (2001) also listed the hemipenis attenuate without apical disks as characteristic of Tropidurus, however the hemipenial morphology of T. sertanejo, n. sp., was not examined.
Tropidurus sertanejo, n. sp., is diagnosed as a member of the T. torquatus group by lacking the enlarged middorsal scale row (well marked in species of the T. spinulosus group, especially in males), by having black thigh flash marks (males of T. spinulosus group have yellow, pale, or white flash marks), and by not being extremely flattened dorsoventrally (as observed in species of the T. semitaeniatus group and, more moderately, in T. bogerti).
Tropidurus sertanejo, n. sp., lacks granular mite pockets on the lateral neck. The oblique neck fold of the species is covered with imbricate, smooth, mucronate scales, similar to but smaller than temporals and dorsals (fig. 8). The new species has deep, oblique axillary and wide inguinal mite pockets, both coated with unpigmented diminutive granular scales. The bronze head and light brown dorsal body decorated with small pale salmon spots constitute a unique coloration pattern (figs. 2, 4–5). This exclusive combination of macroscopic attributes makes T. sertanejo, n. sp., a rare example of easily diagnosable species within the T. torquatus group.

Comparisons: Tropidurus sertanejo, n. sp., is the only species of the T. torquatus group lacking mite pockets on the lateral neck and could not be classified accord- ing to the eight mite pockets patterns described by Rodrigues (1987). We amended that classification scheme by adding two patterns (I and J) to accommodate T. sertanejo, n. sp., and T. psammonastes (fig. 8; table 2). Tropidurus sertanejo, n. sp., is known to occur in sympatry with only two other forms of the T. torquatus group: T. hispidus and T. aff. etheridgei. However, those species differ considerably with respect to number and morphology of their mite pockets. Tropidurus hispidus has one mite pocket on the lateral neck, one deep and oblique granular axillary mite pocket, and lacks an inguinal pocket. Tropidurus aff. etheridgei has two mite pockets on the lateral neck, and lacks both axillary or inguinal mite pockets, while T. sertanejo, n. sp., lacks a mite pocket on the lateral neck and has both axillary and inguinal pockets well developed and coated with granular scales.
The state of conservation of old specimens sometimes precludes accurate identification of the type and number of mite pockets on the lateral neck of specimens. Therefore, checking for the presence of axillary and inguinal granular pockets is an easy way to narrow down the number of species for comparison. Tropidurus sertanejo, n. sp., shares both axillary and ingui- nal mite pockets exclusively with T. erythrocephalus, T. montanus, and T. mucujensis. These three forms are allopatric with respect to T. sertanejo, n. sp., and have distributions nearly restricted to rocky fields known as campos rupestres, spread over the Espinhaço mountain range, in the states of Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil (Rodrigues, 1987, 1988; Carvalho, 2013). In terms of coloration, T. sertanejo, n. sp., has a bronze dorsal head, distinct from the intense brick-reddish head coloration of T. erythrocephalus. The ventral side of its head is pale salmon, and grades into a dark bronze throat, differing from the orange pigmentation covering the throat and chest of T. erythrocephalus. Tropidurus sertanejo, n. sp., has a dotted dorsal pattern somewhat similar to T. mucujensis, but the former is decorated with pale salmon spots on the dorsum, while the dorsal color pattern in the latter is scattered with sky-blue spots against the dark background of its dorsum and tail. Tropidurus sertanejo, n. sp., also lacks aculeate spines on the lateral neck, a morphological attribute exclusive to T. mucujensis. 
Comment 
Etymology“The species name, sertanejo, is to be treated as an indeclinable word. In Portuguese, sertanejo is an adjective that alludes to interior or rural areas. It is also used as a noun to refer to the people born in the sertão. In current times, the term sertão is mostly used to refer to the dry areas of northeastern Brazil dominated by the Caatinga biome, where T. sertanejo, n. sp., occurs. Naming T. sertanejo, n. sp., we aim to honor all men and women who bravely thrive in the historically neglected semiarid Brazilian Caatinga.” [CARVALHO et al. 2016]. 
References
  • Carvalho, André L.G.; Marco A. Sena, Pedro L.V. Peloso, Fabio A. Machado, Rachel Montesinos, Hélio R. Silva, Gwyneth Campbell, and Miguel T. Rodrigues 2016. A New Tropidurus (Tropiduridae) from the Semiarid Brazilian Caatinga: Evidence for Conflicting Signal between Mitochondrial and Nuclear Loci Affecting the Phylogenetic Reconstruction of South American Collared Lizards. American Museum Novitates (3852): 1-68 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel 2016. Ein ländlicher Kielschwanzleguan. Terraria-Elaphe 2016 (6): 13 - get paper here
 
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