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Tropidurus torquatus (WIED-NEUWIED, 1820)

IUCN Red List - Tropidurus torquatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaTropiduridae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Amazon Lava Lizard
G: Kielschwanzleguan
Portuguese: Calango, Calango-de-Muro, Calango-do-Cerrado, Calango-Urbano, Labigó, Lagartixa, Lagartixa-Preta, Lagarto, Lagarto-da-Pedra, Lagarto-de-Parede, Taraguira, Trauíra 
SynonymStellio torquatus WIED-NEUWIED 1820: 106
Agama operculata — LICHTENSTEIN 1822
Agama brasiliensis — RADDI 1823: 59
Tropidurus torquatus — WIED 1824
Agama hispida sive tuberculata SPIX 1825 (fide RODRIGUES 1987)
Tropidurus torquatus — WIED-NEUWIED 1825
Taraguira darwinii GRAY 1845: 220 (fide BOULENGER 1885)
Steironotus (Strobilurus) sp. — FITZINGER 1843
Tropidurus torquatus — BOULENGER 1885: 176
Tropidurus torquatus — FROST 1992
Tropidurus hispida (fide BURT & BURT 1930)
Tropidurus hygomi (fide BURT & BURT 1931)
Tropidurus torquatus — HARVEY GUTBERLET 2000
Tropidurus torquatus — KUNZ & BORGES-MARTINS 2013 
DistributionBrazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Goias, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Bahia), Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)], Bolivia ?, Argentina (Corrientes etc.)

Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Lagoa do Paulista [neotype locality]. Lat -22.2352, -41.5481.  
TypesNeotype: MZUSP 54907 (RODRIGUES 1987); original description doesn’t mention type specimens. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Tropidurus is a Neotropical genus of iguanoid lizards characterized by a conspicuously enlarged interparietal plate, the presence of gular folds, presence of infradigital keels, and the absence of femoral pores (Cei 1993; Carreira et al. 2005, Cacciali & Köhler 2018).

DIAGNOSIS (genus): Following Frost et al. (2001) (1) head not relatively small, body and tail not compressed latero-laterally; (2) body not extremely flattened dorso-ventrally; (3) skull not highly elevated at the level of the orbits; (4) premaxilla not broad; (5) nutritive foramina of maxilla striking enlarged; (6) lingual process of dentary present, extending over lingual dentary process of coronoid; (7) angular strongly reduced; (8) medial centrale absent; (9) sternal fontanelle present; (10) circumorbitals distinct from other small supraorbital scales; (11) one enlarged subocular plus one (occasionally divided) preocular; (12) well-defined postmental scale series; (13) antegular fold absent; (14) projecting tufts of elongate, spiny scales on the neck absent (except in T. mucujensis); (15) dorsal background gray, brown, or olive; (16) dorsals keeled and mucronate, ventrals smooth; (17) enlarged middorsal scale row absent; (18) black “flash” marks on pre-cloacal region and underneath thighs of males (yellow or yellowish in subadults); (19) tail autotomic, terete, mucronate; (20) fourth finger longer than third; (21) lateral fringe not developed on both sides of fourth toes; (22) hemipenes attenuate, without apical disks; (23) rupicolous or psammophilous (modified by O. Torres-Carvajal, and A. Carvalho, pers. comm. 2021).

Diagnosis: Tropidurus torquatus is diagnosable from all congeners, except those of the torquatus group, by lacking a middorsal scale row and by having imbricate and keeled dorsal scales. From those of the torquatus group, except for T. catalanensis and T. imbituba sp. nov., it can be distinguished by having two mite pockets under the oblique neck fold, the upper pocket is well developed and the lower is poorly developed; two or three axillary pockets; and inguinal granular pocket present (type “A” sensu Rodrigues 1987). As presently recognized T. torquatus can be distinguished from T. catalanensis and T. imbituba only on the base of coloration characters which are best developed on adult males. From T. catalanensis it differs in not having yellow coloration on chest and mental region, while from T. imbituba it differs in not having orange-bronze coloration on the venter and sides of the trunk [from KUNZ & BORGES-MARTINS 2013]. 
CommentSynonymy partly after Peters et al. 1970.

Species group: The torquatus group of Tropidurus contains 13 species: T. chromatops, T. cocorobensis Rodrigues, 1987, T. erythrocephalus Rodrigues, 1987, T. etheridgei, T. hispidus, T. hygomi, T. insulanus Rodrigues, 1987, T. itambere Rodrigues, 1987, T. montanus Rodrigues, 1987, T. mucujensis Rodrigues, 1987, T. oreadicus Rodrigues, 1987, T. psammonastes and T. torquatus [SARAIVA-KUNZ & BORGES-MARTINS 2013]..

Distribution: probably in Bolivia (based on occurrence in neighboring countries) but not reported from there yet (HARVEY & GUTBERLET 1998).

Habitat: open areas and rocky outcrops, sand, semi-arboreal.

Type species: Stellio torquatus WIED-NEUWIED 1820 is the type species of the genus Tropidurus WIED 1824.

Diet: omnivorous

WIED-NEUWIED 1820 did not provide a type locality. 
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