Tupinambis teguixin (LINNAEUS, 1758)
Can you confirm these amateur observations of Tupinambis teguixin?
|Higher Taxa||Teiidae, Tupinambinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)|
|Common Names||E: Common Golden Tegu, Black Tegu, Golden Tegu|
G: Schwarz-Weisser Teju, Bänderteju
|Synonym||Lacerta Teguixin LINNAEUS 1758: 208|
Seps marmoratus LAURENTI 1768: 59
Laacerta tupinambis LACÉPÈDE 1788
Lacerta monitor — SHAW & NODDER 1790: plate 21
Lacerta monitor LATREILLE 1801: 220
Tupinambis monitor DAUDIN 1802: 20
Monitor meriani BLAINVILLE 1816
Monitor (Tutor) americanus GOLDFUSS 1820: 168
Teius monitor — WIED 1824
Tupinambis nigropunctatus SPIX 1825: 18
Monitor teguixin FITZINGER 1826
Podinema teguixin WAGLER 1830
Lacerta Teguixin — CUVIER 1831: 113
Tupinambidibus Daudini — RANZONI 1836 (synonymy unclear)
Teius teguixin - GRAY 1838: 276
Salvator nigropunctatus - DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 90
Teius nigropunctatus - GRAY 1845: 16
Teius teguexim - BATES 1864: 233
Tejus teguexin [sic] — DOLLO 1884: 68
Tejus tequexin [sic] — COPE 1885: 189
Tupinambis teguixin — BOULENGER 1885: 335
Tupinambis nigropunctatus — BOULENGER 1885: 337
Tupinambis tegnixin [sic] - MÜLLER 1912: 24
Tupinambis teguixin — PETERS et al. 1970: 272
Tupinambis teguixin nigropunctatus - MÜLLER 1971: 24
Tupinambis teguixin nigropunctatus — MERTENS 1972
Tupinambis teguixin - PRESCH 1973: 741 (part?)
Tupinambis nigropunctatus — HOOGMOED & LESCURE 1975
Tupinambis teguixin — DUELLMAN 1978: 223
Tupinambis nigropunctatus — RESE 1983
Tupinambis teguixin — RESE 1983
Tupinambis teguixin - CEI 1993
Tupinambis teguixin — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Tupinambis teguixin — MCNISH 2011
Tupinambis teguixin — HARVEY et al. 2012
|Distribution||Colombia, Venezuela (Cojedes), Isla Margarita, Tobago, Ecuador, Brazil (Amazonas, Acre, Amapa, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, Rio Grande do Sul, Bahia, Ceará), Peru, Trinidad, N Argentina (Buenos Aires, La Pampa, San Luis, Córdoba), Bolivia (Beni, Cochabamba, Pando, Santa Cruz), Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana|
Type locality: “Indiis” Map legend:
- Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.
NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
|Types||Lectotype: ZMUU (= UUZM) 13 (Presch, 1973)|
Lectotype: ZSM 629/0, male, designation by Hoogmoed & Gruber (1983) [nigropuncatus]
|Comment||Type species: Tupinambis monitor DAUDIN 1802 is the type species of the genus Tupinambis DAUDIN 1802. Tupinambis is also the type species of the subfamily Tupinambinae BONAPARTE 1831 (not established by ESTES et al. 1988 as is often cited; see Costa et al. 2016 for historical details).|
Distribution: not in Uruguay (M. Hoogmoed, pers. comm., 19 Feb 2013). Not in Panama fide LOTZKAT 2015 (pers. comm., 23 Dec 2015).
Diagnosis (subfamily): Of characters we examined, the Tupinambinae are the only living teiids with complete caudal annuli alternating with annuli divided dorsally and a gap of granular scales separating femoral from abdominal pores. They lack circumorbital scales or have 1–3/1–3 circumorbitals restricted to the posterior border of the fourth supraocular. Other characters likely to be diagnostic of the Tupinambinae but assessed for relatively few Teiinae include synapomorphies identified by Presch (1974a) and Sullivan and Estes (1997): short interclavicular median process, second ceratobranchial absent, and postfrontal not in contact with jugal.
Diagnosis (genus): Tupinambis can be distinguished from all other teiids by the combination of smooth dorsals, one loreal, a gap of granular scales separating femoral from abdominal pores, and a cylindrical tail with complete annuli alternating with annuli divided on the dorsal and lateral sides of the tail.
Diagnosis (species). (1) Five supraoculars, first is usually the longest, but the second is largest in area (note that in some specimens the first and second supraocular are almost equal in length); (2) last supraocular usually contacts two ciliaries; (3) ventral side of male’s head often uniform black during breeding (4) largest prefemoral scales are imbricate, hexagonal, and longer than tall; (5) three enlarged supratemporal scales form one row; (6) three occipitals contact the interparietal scale; (7) rostral readily visible in dorsal view; (8) indistinct transverse bands, may be mostly black in adult males or with a trace of transverse bands (females); (9) the anterior corner of the orbit is over upper labial three. In the molecular analysis this is clade 2 (from Murphy et al. 2016: 14).
Variation. Supraoculars five, (six or seven are not common), the first is the longest; last supraocular usually in contact with two ciliaries; all specimens had three occipitals contacting the interparietal, except one specimen which had two; and all had an incomplete interangular fold; suboculars usually six, one specimen had seven; upper labials 8–10, third or fourth the longest; lower labials 7–8; sublabials 3–5, usually four; chin shields in four pairs, rarely five pairs; lamellae on fourth finger 14–16; lamella on fourth toe 31–36 (from Murphy et al. 2016: 15).
Comparisons. Tupinambis teguixin is distinguished from the sympatric Tupinambis cryptus sp. n. by two supraciliaries contacting the last supraocular (three in T. cryptus sp. n); usually three occipitals in contact with the interparietal (usually one in T. cryptus sp. n). Tupinambis teguixin differs from T. cuzcoensis sp. n. in having the first supraocular the longest (the second is the longest in cuzcoensis); first pair of chinshields are distinctly longer than the postmental (in T. cuzcoensis sp. n. the first pair of chinshields are about as long or shorter than the post- mental). Tupinambis teguixin differs from Tupinambis zuliensis sp. n. by having the first supraocular the longest (the second is longest in T. zuliensis) (from Murphy et al. 2016: 15).
For more differences between Tupinambis and Salvator see Salvator merianae.
Nomenclature: The name T. teguixin was for a long time applied for the species here named T. merianae, while the species here under discussion was called T. nigropunctatus. For a detailed discussion of nomenclature see Avila-Pires (1995).
Synonyms partly from CEI 1993.
|Etymology||Etymology (genus): The generic name Tupinambis is a masculine Latin noun in the nominative singular apparently referring to the Tupinambá indigenous tribe, one of several Tupi ethnic groups that inhabited Brazil at the time of the conquest.|