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Tupinambis teguixin (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Sauria (lizards) 
SubspeciesTupinambis teguixin sebastiani MÜLLER 1968
Tupinambis teguixin Teguixin (LINNAEUS 1758) 
Common NamesE: Black Tegu, Golden Tegu
G: Schw.-Weiss oder Bänderteju 
SynonymLacerta Teguixin LINNAEUS 1758: 208
Seps marmoratus LAURENTI 1768: 59
Laacerta tupinambis LACÉPÈDE 1788
Lacerta monitor — SHAW & NODDER 1790: plate 21
Lacerta monitor LATREILLE 1801a: 220
Tupinambis monitor DAUDIN 1802a: 20
Monitor meriani BLAINVILLE 1816
Monitor (Tutor) americanus GOLDFUSS 1820: 168
Teius monitor — WIED 1824
Tupinambis nigropunctatus SPIX 1825: 18
Monitor teguixin FITZINGER 1826
Podinema teguixin WAGLER 1830
Lacerta Teguixin — CUVIER 1831: 113
Teius teguixin - GRAY 1838: 276
Salvator nigropunctatus - DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 90
Teius nigropunctatus - GRAY 1845: 16
Teius teguexim - BATES 1864: 233
Tejus teguexin [sic] — DOLLO 1884: 68
Tejus tequexin [sic] — COPE 1885: 189
Tupinambis teguixin — BOULENGER 1885: 335
Tupinambis nigropunctatus — BOULENGER 1885: 337
Tupinambis tegnixin [sic] - MÜLLER 1912: 24
Tupinambis teguixin — PETERS et al. 1970: 272
Tupinambis teguixin nigropunctatus - MÜLLER 1971: 24
Tupinambis teguixin nigropunctatus — MERTENS 1972
Tupinambis teguixin - PRESCH 1973: 741 (part?)
Tupinambis nigropunctatus — HOOGMOED & LESCURE 1975
Tupinambis teguixin — DUELLMAN 1978: 223
Tupinambis teguixin - CEI 1993
Tupinambis teguixin — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Tupinambis teguixin — MCNISH 2011
Tupinambis teguixin — HARVEY et al. 2012 
DistributionPanama, Colombia, Venezuela (Cojedes), Isla Margarita, Tobago, Ecuador, Brazil (Amazonas, Acre, Amapa, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, Rio Grande do Sul, Bahia), Peru, Trinidad, N Argentina (Buenos Aires, La Pampa, San Luis, Córdoba), Bolivia (Beni, Cochabamba, Pando, Santa Cruz), Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana

Type locality: “Indiis” Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesLectotype: UUZM 13 (Presch, 1973) 
CommentType species: Tupinambis monitor DAUDIN 1802 is the the type species of the genus Tupinambis DAUDIN 1802. Tupinambis is also the type species of the subfamily Tupinambinae ESTES et al. 1988.

Distribution: not in Uruguay (M. Hoogmoed, pers. comm., 19 Feb 2013).

Diagnosis (subfamily): Of characters we examined, the Tupinambinae are the only living teiids with complete caudal annuli alternating with annuli divided dorsally and a gap of granular scales separating femoral from abdominal pores. They lack circumorbital scales or have 1–3/1–3 circumorbitals restricted to the posterior border of the fourth supraocular. Other characters likely to be diagnostic of the Tupinambinae but assessed for relatively few Teiinae include synapomorphies identified by Presch (1974a) and Sullivan and Estes (1997): short interclavicular median process, second ceratobranchial absent, and postfrontal not in contact with jugal.

Diagnosis (genus): Tupinambis can be distinguished from all other teiids by the combination of smooth dorsals, one loreal, a gap of granular scales separating femoral from abdominal pores, and a cylindrical tail with complete annuli alternating with annuli divided on the dorsal and lateral sides of the tail.

Nomenclature: The name T. teguixin was for a long time applied for the species here named T. merianae, while the species here under discussion was called T. nigropunctatus. For a detailed discussion of nomenclature see Avila-Pires (1995).

Synonyms partly from CEI 1993. 
References
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