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Tympanocryptis macra STORR, 1982

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Amphibolurinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Savannah Earless Dragon 
SynonymTympanocryptis lineata macra STORR 1982: 61
Tympanocryptis lineata macra — SHOO et al. 2008
Tympanocryptis lineata macra — MELVILLE et al. 2019
Tympanocryptis lineata macra — ELLIS 2019
Tympanocryptis macra — MELVILLE et al. 2019 
DistributionAustralia (Western Australia: Nullarbor plain)

Type locality: 16 km S of main dam at Lake Argyle, Western Australia, in 16°15'S, 128°40'E.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: WAM R44553 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (macra): A moderately large, relatively slender subspecies of T. lineata Peters, most like T. l. centralis Sternfeld but larger and having longer limbs and tail and more subdigital lamellae.

Diagnosis. A species of Tympanocryptis with rostral scale continuous with the canthus rostralis, no lateral neck fold, keels of dorsal snout and head scales all aligned parallel to the midline, weak five- lined colour pattern, keeled ventrals and throat scales, and large size (Melville et al. 2019: 29).

Comparison with other species. Tympanocryptis macra is a distinctive species, the largest species in the genus and the most gracile, with relatively longer extremities [21]. Its weakly contrasting colour pattern, as Storr [21] noted, makes it superficially similar to T. rustica, but its tapered snout and cephalic keels oriented in parallel series immediately distinguish T. macra from either T. centralis or T. rustica. Recent publications (e.g. [45]) have at times confused this species with T. uniformis, a species that is currently poorly understood, but markedly distinct from T. macra in its round-headed, ‘dumpy’ habitus and dorsal surface lacking enlarged spinous scales (Melville et al. 2019: 29). 
CommentSubspecies: Tympanocryptis lineata macra has been elevated to full species status.

Distribution: see map in Melville et al. 2019: 6 (Fig. 1)

See also Tympanocryptis lineata.

Habitat. A wide range of tropical savannah grasslands and shrublands, mainly on cracking soils. Males observed perching on low rocks or clumps of soil using tripod stance, similar to that observed previously in T. tetraporophora. Will flee down cracks when alarmed. Has also been observed perched off the ground in grasses during the heat of the day. 
EtymologyThe name macra is Latin for 'lean'. 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp.
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Ellis, Ryan J. 2019. An annotated type catalogue of the dragon lizards (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae) in the collection of the Western Australian Museum. RECORDS OF THE WESTERN AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 34: 115–132 - get paper here
  • Kinghorn, J. Roy 1924. Reptiles and batrachians from south and south-west Australia. Rec. Austral. Mus. 14 (3): 163-183 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1934. Australian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 77: 243-383 - get paper here
  • Macey, J. R., J. A. Schulte II, A. Larson, N. B. Ananjeva, Y. Wang, R. Pethiyagoda, N. Rastegar-Pouyani, T. J. Papenfuss 2000. Evaluating trans-Tethys migration: an example using acrodont lizard phylogenetics. Systematic Biology 49 (2): 233-256 - get paper here
  • Manthey,U. & SCHUSTER,N. 1999. Agamen, 2. Aufl. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 120 pp. - get paper here
  • Melville J, Chaplin K, Hipsley CA, Sarre SD, Sumner J, Hutchinson M. 2019. Integrating phylogeography and high-resolution X-ray CT reveals five new cryptic species and multiple hybrid zones among Australian earless dragons. R. Soc. open sci. 6: 191166 - get paper here
  • Melville J, Chaplin K, Hutchinson M, Sumner J, Gruber B, MacDonald AJ, Sarre SD. 2019. Taxonomy and conservation of grassland earless dragons: new species and an assessment of the first possible extinction of a reptile on mainland Australia. R. Soc. open sci. 6: 190233 - get paper here
  • Melville, Jane; Stephanie Goebel; Carly Starr; J. Scott Keogh & Jeremy J. Austin 2007. Conservation genetics and species status of an endangered Australian dragon, Tympanocryptis pinguicolla (Reptilia: Agamidae). Conservation Genetics 8:185–195
  • Mertens, R. 1967. Die herpetologische Sektion des Natur-Museums und Forschungs-Institutes Senckenberg in Frankfurt am Main nebst einem Verzeichnis ihrer Typen. Senckenbergiana Biologica 48: 1-106 - get paper here
  • Mitchell, F. J. 1948. A revision of the lacertilian genus Tympanocryptis. Rec. South Austral. Mus. 9: 57-86 - get paper here
  • Osborne, W. S.;Kukolic, K.;Davis, M. S.;Blackburn, R. 1993. Recent records of the earless dragon Tympanocryptis lineata pinguicolla in the Canberra region and a description of its habitat. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 23 (1): 16-25
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1863. Eine Übersicht der von Hrn. Richard Schomburgk an das zoologische Museum eingesandten Amphibien, aus Buchsfelde bei Adelaide in Südaustralien. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1863 (April): 228-236 - get paper here
  • Shea, Glenn M; Sadlier, Ross A 1999. A catalogue of the non-fossil amphibian and reptile type specimens in the collection of the Australian Museum: types currently, previously and purportedly present. TECHNICAL REPORTS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 15, 1999: 1-91
  • Shoo, L.P.; R. Rose, P. Doughty, J.J. Austin, J. Melville 2008. Diversification patterns of pebble-mimic dragons are consistent with historical disruption of important habitat corridors in arid Australia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48: 528–542
  • Smith WJS, Osborne WS, Donnellan SC & Cooper PD 1999. The systematic status of earless dragon lizards, Tympanocryptis (Reptilia: Agamidae), in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 47: 551-564 - get paper here
  • Starr, C.R. & Leung, L. K.P. 2006. Habitat Use by the Darling Downs Population of the Grassland Earless Dragon: Implications for Conservation. JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 70 (4): 897–903
  • Sternfeld, R. 1925. Beiträge zur Herpetologie Inner-Australiens. Abhandlungen Herausgegeben von der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 38: 221—251
  • Storr, G M 1982. Taxonomic notes on the genus Tympanocryptis Peters (Lacertilia: Agamidae). Rec. West. Austr. Mus. 10 (1): 61-66 - get paper here
  • Storr, G. M. 1964. The agamid lizards of the genus Tympanocryptis in Western Australia. J R. Soc. West. Aust. 47: 43-50.
  • Storr, G. M. 1982. Revision of the bearded dragons (Lacertilia: Agamidae) of Western Australia with notes on the dismemberment of the genus Amphibolurus. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 19 (2): 199-214 - get paper here
  • Storr, G.M. 1986. NOTE ON TYMPANOCRYPTIS LINEATA MACRA (LACERTILIA AGAMIDAE). Rec. West. Austr. Mus. 13 (3): 317-322
  • Tallowin, Oliver J S; Shai Meiri, Stephen C Donnellan, Stephen J Richards, Christopher C Austin, Paul M Oliver, 2019. The other side of the Sahulian coin: biogeography and evolution of Melanesian forest dragons (Agamidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, , blz125, - get paper here
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
  • Worrell, E. 1963. Reptiles of Australia. Angus & Robertson (Sydney), xv + 207 pp
 
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