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Typhlophis squamosus (SCHLEGEL, 1839)

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Higher TaxaAnomalepididae, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Trinidad Blind Snake
Portuguese: Cobra-Cega, Fura-Terra, Minhoca 
SynonymTyphlops squamosus SCHLEGEL 1839: 36
Typhlophis squamosus — FITZINGER 1843: 24
Cephalolepis leucocephalus DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 315
Typhlophis squamosus — BOULENGER 1893: 57
Typhlophis squamosus — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Typhlophis squamosus — STARACE 1998: 68
Typhlophis ayarzaguenai SEÑARIS 1998
Typhlophis squamosus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 53
Typhlophis squamosus — GOWER et al. 2012: 42
Typhlophis squamosus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 756
Typhlophis squamosus — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionTrinidad, Guyana (?), French Guiana, Suriname (?), Brazil (Grao Para)

Type locality: Cayenne

ayarzaguenai: Venezuela (Bolivar, Los Pijiguaos); Type locality: Serranía de los Pijiguaos, Area Bauxiven, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela.  
TypesHolotype: RMNH, according to Gray (1845:136); however, Hahn (1980:5) stated the holotype was MNHN and is now lost. The specimen in RMNH has a hand-written note saying that it may be Typhlops septemstriatus or its type). 
CommentKOK & RIVAS (2008) synonymized Typhlophis ayarzaguenai with Typhlophis squamosus.

Type species: Typhlops squamosus SCHLEGEL 1839 is the type species of the genus Typhlophis FITZINGER 1843.

Typhlops squamosus was described by Schlegel (1839) and characterized by the head being covered by small scales indistinguishable from those of the rest of the body. Based on this same characteristic Fitzinger (1843) proposed a new genus for this species: Typhlophis. According to the original description T. squamosus has 345 ventral scales, 14 subcaudals and 21 rows of mid-body scales, while Boulenger (1893) raised the number of mid-body scales to 24 and mentioned that this species measures 130 mm [from SEÑARIS 1998]. 
  • Avila-Pires, Teresa C.S.; Kleiton R. Alves-Silva, Laís Barbosa, Fabrício S. Correa, Jorge F. A. Cosenza, Ana Paula V. Costa-Rodrigues, Aurea A. Cronemberger, Marinus S. Hoogmoed, Geraldo R. Lima-Filho, Adriano O. Maciel, Alexandre F. R. Missassi, Lyw 2018. Changes in Amphibian and Reptile Diversity Over Time in Parque Estadual do Utinga, a Protected Area Surrounded by Urbanization. Herpetology Notes 11: 499-512 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1844. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol.6. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 609 pp. - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Gasc & Rodrigues 1980. Liste preliminaire des Serpents de la Guyane francaise. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (4): 559-598
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Gower, D.; Garrett, K. & Stafford, P. 2012. Snakes. Firefly Books, Buffalo, NY,<br />144 p..
  • Kok, Philippe and Gilson Rivas Fuenmayor. 2008. Typhlophis ayarzaguenai Señaris, 1998 is a junior synonym of Typhlophis squamosus (Schlegel, 1839). Amphibia-Reptilia 29 (4):555-558 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mendes-Pinto, T. J. & S. Marques de Souza 2011. Preliminary assessment of amphibians and reptiles from Floresta Nacional do Trairão, with a new snake record for the Pará state, Brazilian Amazon. Salamandra 47 (4): 199-206 - get paper here
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Morato, Sérgio Augusto Abrahão; Guilherme Nunes Ferreira; Michela Rossane Cavilha Scupino (eds.) 2018. Herpetofauna da Amazônia Central: Estudos na FLONA de Saracá-Taquera. Curitiba, Pr: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas, Pa: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A., 2018.<br />210p. - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela. Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Rieppel, O.; Kley, N.J.; Maisano, J.A. 2009. Morphology of the Skull of the White-Nosed Blindsnake, Liotyphlops albirostris (Scolecophidia: Anomalepididae). Journal of Morphology 270: 536-557 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1839. Abbildungen neuer oder unvollständig bekannter Amphibien, nach der Natur oder dem Leben entworfen und mit einem erläuternden Texte begleitet. Arne and Co., Düsseldorf, xiv + 141 pp. - get paper here
  • Señaris, J. Celsa 1998. A new species of Typhlophis (Serpentes: Anomalepididae) from Bolívar State, Venezuela. Amphibia-Reptilia 19 (3): 303-310 - get paper here
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Ukuwela, K.D.B., de Silva, A., Sivaruban, A. et al. 2022. Diversity, distribution, and natural history of the marine snakes of Sri Lanka. Marine Biodiversity 52, 24 (2022) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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