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Tytthoscincus kakikecil GRISMER, WOOD, QUAH, ANUAR, NGADI, MOHD-IZAM & AHMAD, 2017

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae (Sphenomorphini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Fraser’s hill Forest skink
Malay: Mengkarung hutan Bukit Fraser 
SynonymTytthoscincus kakikecil GRISMER, WOOD, QUAH, ANUAR, NGADI, MOHD-IZAM & AHMAD 2017 
DistributionPeninsular Malaysia (Pahang)

Type locality: along Richmond Road, Frasers’s Hill, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia (N 03°42.590′, E 101°44.236′; 1271 m in elevation  
TypesHolotype: LSUHC 11769, Adult male, collected by Evan S. H. Quah on 27 September 2013. Paratypes: LSUHC 11770 and 11772 collected on the Telecom Loop Road, Fraser’s Hill, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia (N 03°43.112′, E 101°45.158′; 1305 m in ele- vation) by Evan S. H. Quah and L. Lee Grismer on 27 September 2013. LSUHC 12754 collected at Ulu Kali, Genting Highlands, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia (N 03°25.759′, E 101°47.328′; 1670 m in elevation) by Evan S. H. Quah and L. Lee Grismer on 22 June 2016. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Tytthoscincus kakikecil sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other species of Tytthoscincus in the montane clade by having the combination of 8`1, 9`1 or 9`2 superciliaries; a shallow, pigmented tympanic depression; enlarged pectoral scales; 30–33 mid-body scales; 67–73 paravertebral scales; 65–69 ventral scales; keeled, subdigital lamellae; six subdigital lamellae on the third finger; ten subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; TD/HL = 0.10–0.12; HL/SVL = 0.18– 0.21; AXG/SVL = 0.52–0.65; FL/SVL = 0.18–0.23; HDL/SVL = 0.30–0.34; and a maximum SVL of 36.2 mm (Table 6). All non-ratiometric characters are scored across all other Tytthoscincus and species of Sphenomorphus suspected of being Tytthoscincus in Grismer et al. (2016a: 237) and Karin et al. (2016: 416).

Comparisons: Tytthoscincus kakikecil sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other species of Tytthoscincus of the montane clade (Table 6), except its sister species T. jaripendek sp. nov., by having a shallow, pigmented tym- panic depression vs. a well-developed, deeply recessed, weakly pigmented tympanum. From T. jaripendek sp. nov., it differs by having 67–73 vs. 63–65 paraverte- bral scales; 65–69 vs. 60–62 ventral scales; having as opposed to lacking enlarged pectoral scales; and having statistically significant differences in the mean number of PV, VS, 3TL and FL/SVL (Tables 6, 7). Tytthoscincus kakikecil sp. nov. also bears statistically significant mean differences of all ten characters in varying combi- nations across all other species (Table 6). Meristic and body shape trends of these characters among species in the montane clade are presented in Figures 4 and 5. 
CommentHabitat: leaf-litter in hill dipterocarp and mossy forests from at least 1305–1670 m in elevation (Fig. 12). All specimens at Fraser’s Hill were collected by raking leaves that had accumulated on earthen banks along the road or by turning rocks and logs buried in leaf-litter. LSUHC 12754 from Genting Highlands was found abroad at night in a dirt parking lot next to a rubbish pile on the edge of a mossy forest that we presume to be its natural habitat (as opposed to the rubbish pile). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet kakikecil is derived from the Malay words kaki meaning leg or foot and kecil meaning small and refers to this species’ diminutive limbs. 
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; & EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. An updated and annotated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent archipelagos. Zootaxa 4545 (2): 230–248 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY L. WOOD, JR., EVAN S.H. QUAH, SHAHRUL ANUAR, EHWAN B. NGADI, NUR AMALINA MOHD IZAM and NORHAYATI AHMAD 2017. Systematics, ecomorphology, cryptic speciation and biogeography of the lizard genus Tytthoscincus Linkem, Diesmos & Brown (Squamata: Scincidae) from the sky- island archipelago of Peninsular Malaysia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society XX: 1–37 - get paper here
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