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Tytthoscincus temasekensis GRISMER, WOOD, LIM & LIANG, 2017

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae (Sphenomorphini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Singapore swamp skink 
SynonymTytthoscincus temasekensis GRISMER, WOOD, LIM & LIANG 2017 
DistributionSingapore, Peninsular Malaysia (Perak)

Type locality: Pasir Laba Road, Singapore (N 01°19.526′, E 103°40.212′; 24 m elevation  
TypesHolotype: ZRC 2.6490 (adult female) collected by B. Y. H. Lee on 21 June 2014.Paratypes. ZRC 2.2557 (juvenile) collected from the Nee Soon Swamp, Singapore (approximately N 01°24.051′, E 103°48.537′; 20 m elevation) by K. P. K. Lim on 28 December 1989. ZRC 2.667 (adult male) collected from the Nee Soon Swamp, Singapore (approximately N 01°24.051′, E 103°48.537′; 20 m elevation) by K. Young and P. K. L. Ng on 30 April 1990. ZRC 2.3959 (adult male) at Lorong Banir off Upper Thomson Road, Singapore (approximately N 01°23.427′, E 103°50.220′; 9 m elevation) by K. P. K. Lim on 24 May 1994. ZRC 2.7111 (juvenile) collected at Upper Seletar Reservoir Park, Singapore (approximately N 01°22.376′, E 103°48.434′; 37 m elevation) by N. Baker on 12 September 2015. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Tytthoscincus temasekensis sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other species of Tytthoscincus in Peninsular Malaysia by having the combination of two loreals, two postsupralabials, 9`1 or 10`2 superciliaries, four supraoculars; interparietal contacting 2nd–4th supraoculars, a shallow, pigmented tympanum, slightly enlarged pectoral scales, 27–29 midbody scale rows, 55–65 paravertebral scales, 54–63 ventral scales, 9–11 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe, keeled, subdigital lamellae, and a dorsal pattern of light-coloured stripes and/or linearly arranged spots. All characters are scored across all other Tytthoscincus and species of Sphenomorphus suspected of being Tytthoscinus in Grismer et al. (2016a: 237) and Karin et al. (2016: 416).

Comparisons. Tytthoscincus temasekensis, new species, can be differentiated from all other species of the Tytthoscincus of the montane clade by having stripes or longitudinally arranged spots. Tytthoscincus temasekensis sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other species of the Tytthoscincus of the swamp clade by having two versus one loreal scale, slightly enlarged pectoral scales versus no enlarged pectoral scales, and adpressed limbs making contact versus being separated. Tytthoscincus temasekensis sp. nov. can be further differentiated from T. panchorensis by the interparietal contacting the 2nd–4th supraoculars versus the 3rd–5th supraoculars and having four versus fve supraoculars (these two characters are linked); having 55–65 versus 68 paravertebral scales rows, having 9–11 versus eight subdigital lamellae on the 4th toe; and having white lineate markings in its dorsal pattern (Tables 4, 5). Tytthoscincus temasekensis sp. nov. is further differentiated from T. sibuensis by having 54–63 versus 52 ventral scale rows. 
EtymologyNamed after the word Temasek meaning ‘Sea Town’ in Old Javanese and represents the earliest recorded name of a settlement in Singapore. The suffx -ensis is Latin meaning ‘of or from a place.’ The specifc epithet is in reference to the type locality being on the island of Singapore. 
  • FIGUEROA, ALEX; MARTYN E.Y. LOW, KELVIN K.P. LIM 2023. Singapore’s herpetofauna: updated and annotated checklist, history, conservation, and distribution. Zootaxa 5287 (1): 001–378 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; & EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. An updated and annotated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent archipelagos. Zootaxa 4545 (2): 230–248 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; MOHD ABDUL MUIN, PERRY L. WOOD, JR., SHAHRUL ANUAR, & CHARLES W. LINKEM 2016. The transfer of two clades of Malaysian Sphenomorphus Fitzinger (Squamata: Scincidae) into the genus Tytthoscincus Linkem, Diesmos, & Brown and the description of a new Malaysian swamp-dwelling species. Zootaxa 4092 (2): 231–242 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.Lee; Perry L. Wood, Jr., Kelvin K. P. Lim & Lim J. Liang 2017. A new species of swamp-dwelling skink (Tytthoscincus) from Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia. RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY 65: 574–584 - get paper here
  • KARIN, BENJAMIN R.; INDRANEIL DAS, AARON M. BAUER 2016. Two new species of diminutive leaf-litter skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Tytthoscincus) from Gunung Penrissen, Sarawak, Malaysia (northern Borneo). Zootaxa 4093 (3): 407–423 - get paper here
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