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Uma exsul SCHMIDT & BOGERT, 1947

IUCN Red List - Uma exsul - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Callisaurini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Fringe-toed Sand Lizard
S: Lagartija Arenera 
SynonymUma exsul SCHMIDT & BOGERT 1947: 1
Uma exsul — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 89
Uma exsul — NORRIS 1958: 283
Uma exsul — COX & TANNER 1977
Uma exsul — LINER 1994
Uma exsul — GARCIA DE LA PENA et al. 2006 
DistributionMexico (Coahuila)

Type locality: Dunes 12 miles north of San Pedro de Las Colonias, Coahuila.  
TypesHolotype: AMNH 67404 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS: A highly distinct member of the genus Uma, most closely related to Uma scoparia. 0f the members of the genus it is the closest to Holbrookia and Callisaurus. A dorsal pattern of reticulated black lines emphasized at intervals to form diagonal chevrons when viewed from above. Internasal scales usually four. A prominent black shoulder blotch. No small subdigital scales intercalated between the toe fringes and lamellae (Norris 1958: 283).

DESCRIPTION: Dorsal pattern, "reticulating black lines, emphasized at intervals to form diagonal lines or chevrons when viewed from above, enclose lighter colored areas that may be round or elongate, without a dark spot in the center" (Schmidt and Bogert, 1947). Ventrolateral blotch present, produced dorsally and becoming connected with a dorsal chevron. Ratio of snout to vent length to blotch width ranging from 20.3 to 26.3, mean 22.9 +0.82. Gular fold marked with thin black chevrons, absent or faint at mid-gular region. lnternasal scales usually four. Festoons of lower eyelid ranging from 11 to 14, mean 12.6. lnterparietal scale subtriangular or rounded, bordered posteriorly by slightly differentiated post-parietal scales, separated from the interparietal scale by one to two rows of smaller scales, or in contact with it. Auricular lobules usually two. Ratio of snout to vent length to humerus length ranging from 3.57 to 4.06, mean 3. 77 ± 0.05. Round black shoulder blotches always present, very conspicuous. Groin blotches three, continuous with dorsal chevrons. Third groin blotch extending onto prefemoral scales. Femoral pores ranging from 19 to 28, mean 24.8. Doubling of pore rows not noted to occur. Post-femoral gray bars (yellow-orange in life) present in 100 per cent of specimens. Precloacal or lateral cloaca! spots not noted to occur. Fringes on posterior edge of fourth toe of hind foot ranging from 31 to 40, mean 37.0. Fringes and lamellae not intercalated with small subdigital scales. Sexual pattern dimorphism not evidenced. Post-cloacal scales enlarged m both sexes. Caudal whorls of enlarged scales indistinct, most evident caudad.
Dr. Richard Zweifel has supplied me with the following color description taken from a series of Uma exsul obtained on June 24-25, 1957 7 and 13 miles east of Matamoros, Coahuila, Mexico: Dorsal color brown with a yellowish tint. Yellow-orange markings on femora and down midline of tail. Ventrolateral bar, groin blotches, and subcaudal bars jet black. Throat white, with radiating black lines. Venter white except for region around ventrolateral bars, where a yellow to yelloworange tint crosses the belly. Sometimes this color suffuses over much of the ventral surface. Superciliaries, upper eyelids, and rostral scales bright reddish orange (Norris 1958: 283).

Original description: SCHMIDT & BOGERT 1947: 1 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin “exsul” meaning "banished person", in reference to its geographic isolation from its closest relatives (although not explicitly explained by Schmidt & Bogert 1947 who only mention the “isolated position of the population”). 
  • Adest, Gary Andrew 1977. Genetic relationships in the genus Uma (Iguanidae). Copeia 1977 (1): 47-52 - get paper here
  • Cooper, W.E., Jr., G. Castañeda & G.G. de la Peña 2006. Phylogenetic Constraints Do Not Block Food Chemical Discrimination in the Omnivorous Phrynosomatid Lizard Uma exsul Journal of Herpetology 40 (3): 329-335. - get paper here
  • Gadsden, H., L.E. Palacios-Orona & G.A. Cruz-Soto 2001. Diet of the Mexican Fringe-Toed Lizard (Uma exsul) Journal of Herpetology 35 (3): 493-496. - get paper here
  • Gadsden, H., M. de la Luz Dávila-Carrazco & R. Gil-Martínez 2006. Reproduction in the Arenicolour Mexican Lizard Uma exsul Journal of Herpetology 40 (1): 117-122. - get paper here
  • García de la Peña, C.; Castañeda Gayán, G. & Lazcano, D. 2006. Uma exsul - The Fringe-toed Sand Lizard. Reptilia (GB) (44): 74- - get paper here
  • Lazcano D, Nevárez-de los Reyes M, García-Padilla E, Johnson JD, Mata-Silva V, DeSantis DL, Wilson LD. 2019. The herpetofauna of Coahuila, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13(2) [General Section]: 31–94 (e189) - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR 2016. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Coahuila, Mexico, with comparison with adjoining states. ZooKeys 593: 117-137, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.593.8484 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, J.A. & Smith, H.M. 2007. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Coahuila, Mexico. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 550 pp.
  • Norris, Kenneth Stafford 1958. The evolution and systematics of the iguanid genus Uma and its relation to the evolution of other North American desert reptiles. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 114 (3): 247-326 + 4 plates - get paper here
  • Ocampo Salinas, Manuel, J., Castillo-cerón, J. M., Manríquez-morán, N., Goyenechea, I., & Casagranda, M. D. 2019. Endemism of lizards in the Chihuahuan Desert province: An approach based on endemicity analysis. Journal of Arid Environments - get paper here
  • Pough, F.H., D.J. Morafka & P.E. Hillman 1978. The Ecology and Burrowing Behavior of the Chihuahuan Fringe-Footed Lizard, Uma exsul Copeia 1978 (1): 81-86. - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. & Bogert, Charles M. 1947. A new fringe-footed sand lizard from Coahuila, Mexico. American Museum Novitates (1947): 1-9 - get paper here
  • Schulte, Joshua J.; Geoffrey R. Smith, and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2017. Diet of juvenile lizards, Uma exsul, from Coahuila, Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist Mar 2017, Vol. 62, No. 1: 69-71 - get paper here
  • Smith, H.M. & Taylor,E.H. 1950. An annotated checklist and key to the reptiles of Mexico exclusive of the snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 199: 1-253 - get paper here
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