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Uma notata BAIRD, 1858

IUCN Red List - Uma notata - Near Threatened, NT

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Callisaurini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Colorado Desert Fringe-toed Lizard
S: Arenera del Desierto del Colorado 
SynonymUma notata BAIRD 1858: 253
Uma notata — BOULENGER 1885: 207
Uma rufopunctata COPE 1895 (fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950)
Uma notata — COPE 1900
Uma notata notata — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 89
Uma notata notata — NORRIS 1958: 289
Uma notata rufopunctata — NORRIS 1958: 290
Uma notata notata — ETHERIDGE 1964
Uma notata — MAYHEW 1964
Uma notata notata — POUGH 1977
Uma notata rufopunctata — POUGH 1977
Uma notata — COX & TANNER 1977
Uma notata — STEBBINS 1985: 118
Uma notata — LINER 1994
Uma notata — LINER 2007
Uma notata — CROTHER et al. 2012
Uma rufopunctata — LOVE 2017
Uma rufopunctata — CROTHER et al. 2017
Uma notata — CROTHER et al. 2017 
DistributionUSA (SE California, SW Arizona),
Mexico (NE Baja California Norte)

Type locality: Mojave Desert (in error). Restricted to the “Colorado Desert” by HEIFETZ 1941 and to “the vicinity of Yuma, Arizona” by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

Lectotype locality: Yuma Desert, Yuma County, Arizona, United States of America (32° 25.4328 N, 114° 34.7643 W, NAD 83 datum) [rufopunctata]  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: USNM 4124
Lectotype: USNM 21846, designated by Derycke et al. 2020; paralectotypes (former syntypes): UIMNH 40750 (formerly USNM 21848), USNM 21846-21852, 21997, 21998 [rufopunctata] 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS (genus): Most closely related to Holbrookia and Callisaurus. Separable from the former by the presence of an ear opening, and from the latter by the presence of long spines projecting over the ear opening, and of a digital fringe with small subdigital scales between the fringe and the lamellae, as noted by Schmidt (1922: 651).
Two complete rows of larger frontal plates between the supraocular regions, never a single row anteriorly. Cephalic plates small; largest scales in supraocularregion rarely more than four times as large as the smallest. Femoral pores 18 to 47, usually more than 20. Digits and external margin of foot between fourth and fifth toes with fringes of narrow, elongate, projecting spines, largest on fourth toe and margin of foot, smaller on middle three digits, very small or lacking on first and fifth digits. In immature examples the fringe spines are proportionately shorter and broader at the bases. Males with two enlarged postanal scales.
Snout wedge-shaped in profile, with "countersunk" lower jaw. Form generally depressed, body rather flat, base of tail much depressed. Adpressed front limb not quite reaching base of femur; adpressed hind limb reaching beyond throat. Maximum total length 244 mm.; tail/total length ratio .49 to .64 (Heifetz 1941: 100).

Coloration: Dorsal ground color dirty white or gray, covered by a network of more or less regular black ocelli, with black or reddish-browncenters, the black broadly edged with reddish-brown. On the limbs the black is constricted into small round spots, while the ground color fuses with the reddish-brown to form a rather lighter reddish or pinkish ground. On head and tail the black network is indistinct and finer, with disintegrated ocelli, the ground color fusing as on limbs.
The shade and the presence of the reddish-brown bordering the ocelli
seems to be determined largely by the color of the sand of the local habitat.
In reddish sand, the brown of the lizard approaches a bright
"Rufous" color. In a lighter colored environment, the color is a more subdued "Ferruginous." Around grayish sand, the color is replaced by gray. Sometimes the color bordering the black circlets is entirely absent, or sometimes replaced by a narrow edge of dark brown. The reddish-brown is visible in live or freshly preserved specimens only, fading to duller brown or gray in alcohol.
White below; some species with a large, black, elliptical or rectangular blotch on each lateral edge of the abdomen about midway between limbs. Occasionally a pair of small, black spots present in the preanal region (Meek, 1905: pl. 1). Three to ten black subcaudal cross-bars, which diminish in size to roundish blotches anteriorly; bars not present on regenerated tails. One or two black gular crescents present; in some species these are faint or completely obscure at the middle of the throat. A broad streak of red orange on each side of the abdomen sometimes present, but fading quickly in alcohol (postnuptial coloration?).
Juvenile examples greenish-gray, or light blue above, with the ocellations reduced to black and gray spots (Heifetz 1941: 101). 
CommentSynonymy: Uma n. notata is more closely related to U. inornata than to U. n. rufopunctata (Wilgenbusch & de Queiroz 2000 and others). HEIFETZ (1941) synonymized U. rufopuncata with U. notata notata (which he distinguished from U. notata cowlesi). Populations formerly assigned to U. rufopunctata from the Mohawk Dunes, Yuma Co., AZ appear to represent a currently undescribed cryptic species (Trépanier and Murphy, 2001). Gottscho et al. 2016 concluded that U. rufopuncata is a hybrid between U. notata and U. cowlesi. However, Crother et al. 2017 find their results to be inconsistent, with some analyses supporting the status of U. rufopunctata as a separate species (although with introgression from both U. notata and U. cowlesi). Crother et al. 2017 therefore have retained U. rufopunctata pending further study. Derycke et al. 2020 confirmed that rufopunctata nestss within cowlesi but show different ranges for cowlesi and rufopunctata in their map (Fig. 1).

Type species: Uma notata BAIRD 1858: 253 is the type species of the genus Uma BAIRD 1858: 253.

Distribution: see map in Gottscho et al. 2016: Fig. 1, Derycke et al. 2020: 68 (Fig. 1). Not in Sonora fide Gotscho et al. and Lemos-Espinal et al. 2019.

Key: Norris 1958 presented a key to the species of Uma. 
EtymologyNamed after Notata (Latin) means known; rufopunctata (Latin, rufus "red" or "reddish" and punctus "pricked in") refers to the reddish color of the dorsal ocelli. 
References
  • Baird, S.F. 1859. Description of new genera and species of North American lizards in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 10: 253-256 [1858] - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Burt, Charles E. 1931. On the occurence of a throat-fan in the sand-lizard, Uma notata Baird, with notes on the adaptive specializations of the form. Copeia 1931 (1): 15-16 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1895. On the species of Uma and Xantusia. American Naturalist 29: 938-939 - get paper here
  • Cox, D.C. & Tanner, W. 1977. OSTEOLOGY AND MYOLOGY OF THE HEAD AND NECK REGIONS OF CALLISAURUS, COPHOSAURUS, HOLBROOKIA, AND UMA (REPTILIA: IGUANIDAE). Great Basin Naturalist 37: 35-56 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Deavers, D.R. 1972. Water and Electrolyte Metabolism in the Arenicolous Lizard Uma notata notata Copeia 1972 (1): 109-122. - get paper here
  • DERYCKE, ELIZABETH G.; ANDREW D. GOTTSCHO, ANDREW D. GOTTSCHO, DANIEL G. MULCAHY, KEVIN DE QUEIROZ 2020. A new cryptic species of fringe-toed lizards from southwestern Arizona with a revised taxonomy of the Uma notata species complex (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae). Zootaxa 4778 (1): 67–100 - get paper here
  • Etheridge, Richard 1964. The skeletal morphology and systematic relationships of sceloporine lizards. Copeia 1964 (4): 610-631 - get paper here
  • González-Romero, A., & Alvarez-Cárdenas, S. 1989. Herpetofauna de la Region del Pinacate, Sonora, Mexico: Un Inventario. The Southwestern Naturalist, 34(4), 519–526 - get paper here
  • Gottscho, A.D., Wood, D.A., Vandergast, A.G., Lemos-Espinal, J., Gatesy, J., Reeder, T.W. 2016. Lineage Diversification of Fringe-toed Lizards (Phrynosomatidae: Uma notata complex) in the Colorado Desert: Delimiting Species in the Presence of Gene Flow. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 106: 103-117 - get paper here
  • Heifetz, William 1941. A review of the lizards of the genus Uma. Copeia 1941 (2): 99-111 - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Klauber, L. M. 1939. Index to the scientific names in studies of reptile life in the arid southwest. Bulletins of the Zoological Society of San Diego 14: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Love, Bill 2017. Reptilien und Amphibien besser fotografieren. Terraria-Elaphe 2017 (3): 14-23 - get paper here
  • Mayhew, W.W. 1964. Photoperiodic responses in three species of the lizard genus Uma. Herpetologica 20 (2): 95-113. - get paper here
  • Mayhew, W.W. 1964. Taxonomic Status of California Populations of the Lizard Genus Uma. Herpetologica 20 (3): 170-183. - get paper here
  • Mayhew, Wilbur W. 1966. Reproduction in the Arenicolous Lizard Uma Notata. Ecology 47 (1): 9–18 - get paper here
  • Norris, Kenneth Stafford 1958. The evolution and systematics of the iguanid genus Uma and its relation to the evolution of other North American desert reptiles. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 114 (3): 247-326 + 4 plates - get paper here
  • Pough, F. H. 1970. The burrowing ecology of the sand lizard, Uma notata. Copeia 1970 (1): 145-157 - get paper here
  • Pough, F. Harvey 1977. Uma notata. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (197): 1-2 - get paper here
  • Slevin, Joseph R.;Leviton, Alan E. 1956. Holotype specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the collection of the California Academy of Sciences. [type catalogue] Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 28 (14): 529-560 - get paper here
  • Smith, H.M. & Taylor,E.H. 1950. An annotated checklist and key to the reptiles of Mexico exclusive of the snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 199: 1-253 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Thomson, Robert C.; Amber N. Wright & H. Bradley Shaffer 2016. California Amphibian and Reptile Species of Special Concern. University of California Press - get paper here
  • Trépanier, T.L.; Murphy, R.W. 2001. The Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard (Uma inornata): genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of an endangered species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 18(3):327-334 - get paper here
  • TRUJILLO, LUIS A.; FERNANDO GUAL-SUÁREZ, SAMARA PÉREZ-HARP, RODRIGO A. MEDELLÍN & NATALIE T. SCHMITT. 2022. UMA RUFOPUNCTATA (Yuman Desert Fringe-toed Lizard). PREDATIONUMA RUFOPUNCTATA (Yuman Desert Fringe-toed Lizard). PREDATION. Herpetological Review 53(3): 502–503.
  • Turner, D.S. 1998. Fringed toes and hot sand - the life and times of Uma notata in Arizona's Mohawk Dunes. Sonoran Herpetologist 11 (10):110-112. - get paper here
  • Turner, Frederick B.;Wauer, Roland H. 1963. A survey of the herpetofauna of the Death Valley area. Great Basin Naturalist 23 (3-4): 119-128 - get paper here
  • Werning, Heiko 2012. Die Reptilien und Amphibien des Südwestens. Draco 13 (50): 18-60 - get paper here
  • Wilgenbusch, J. & de Queiroz, K. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships among the phrynosomatid sand lizards inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences generated by heterogeneous evolutionary processes. Systematic Biology 49: 592-612 - get paper here
 
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