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Uma paraphygas WILLIAMS, CHRAPLIWY & SMITH, 1959

IUCN Red List - Uma paraphygas - Near Threatened, NT

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Callisaurini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Chihuahuan Fringe-toed Lizard
S: Arenera de Chihuahua 
SynonymUma paraphygas WILLIAMS, CHRAPLIWY & SMITH 1959
Uma paraphygas — COX & TANNER 1977
Uma paraphygas — LINER 1994
Uma paraphygas — LINER 2007 
DistributionMexico (Coahuila, Chihuahua, Durango)

Type locality: Mexico: 0.7 mi E Carrillo, Chihuahua.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: INHS (= UIMNH) 42889; P. S. Chrapliwy and K. L. Williams; August 1, 1958, paratype: BYU 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A member of the genus Uma differing from all other known species in possession of two instead of one lateroventral black marks on belly, and possession of a dorsal pattern basically like that of exsul but dark pigment not forming distinct chevrons. Differs from exsul also in having a smaller shoulder spot; femoral pores 27-38, avo 30.5, 96 per cent 28 or more, instead of 19-29, avo 24.8, 11.5 per cent 28 or more; scales between femoral pore series 15-21, av. 16.9, 7 per cent 19 or more, instead of 18-22, av. 20.2, 86 per cent 19 or more; no reddish coloring about eyes or snout in life. Like exsul, and different from all other members of the genus, in lacking tail whorls and subdigital scales between lamellae and fringe scales, and in having well developed groin blotches (Williams 1959).

Scutellation of holotype. Frontal portion of head rounded in profile; body and tail flattened, width greater than depth; toes of adpressed front limbs reaching groin; fourth toe of adpressed hind limb reaching slightly in front of ear opening. Rostral pentagonal, extending back on snout to a blunt point; two transverse rows of internasals, anterior row of four scales, posterior row of three; nares elliptical; two enlarged canthals on each side, separated across head by twenty scales; scales in prefrontal region nearly twice as large as adjacent head scales; frontal scales nearly same size as scales of prefrontal region, passing in two rows posteriorly, one row to each side of interparietal, in contact with interparietal or separated by one scale; supraoculars about twice as large as surrounding scales; circumorbital semicircles fairly well defined, made up of from three to five rows of very small scales; interparietal irregularly rounded. Supralabials 6-7, diagonal, slightly flared; infralabials similar, 9-10; a single row of small scales separating supralabials from a single elongate, keeled subocular; subocular preceded by two small, keeled preoculars; ciliaries pectinate, increasing in size posteriorly; three distinctively enlarged auricular lobules on each side, center one largest. Mental small, bordered posteriorly by a triangular postmental separating anterior third of first pair of chinshields; chinshields slightly longer than wide; four rows of sublabials; small, smooth, flat scales present in gular region, enlarging somewhat for three or four scale rows anterior to well developed gular fold; five rows of tiny scales bordering gular fold posteriorly. Small, flat scales covering most of ventral surfaces; scales in the pectoral region slightly enlarged and projecting; fifteen scale rows separating femoral pore rows; subcaudal surface with flat, rectangular scales, enlarging toward the tip of tail; two greatly enlarged postanal scales, bordered posteriorly by seven scales somewhat smaller; postbrachials small, smallest in region of elbow; postantebrachials enlarged; suprabrachials and supraantebrachials pointed, projecting, larger; suprafemorals similar to but slightly smaller than scales on dorsal body surface; supratibials enlarged, pointed and projecting toward anterior surface; on postfemoral surface, slightly distad from body, a circular group of 10-12 enlarged, projecting scales; on ventral surface of thigh, tiny scales posterior to femoral pores, larger scales anteriorly; infratibial scales uniformly enlarged, infratarsals greatly reduced; fringe scales (Heifetz, 1941:110) 36-37; no tail whorls. (Williams et al. 1959) 
Comment 
EtymologyFrom para, Greek for beside, and phygas, Greek for fugitive, in reference to occurrence near the range of exsul, a species widely separated geographically from its known congeners, all restricted to southern California, northern Baja California and northwestern Sonora (Williams et al. 1959). 
References
  • Cox, D.C. & Tanner, W. 1977. OSTEOLOGY AND MYOLOGY OF THE HEAD AND NECK REGIONS OF CALLISAURUS, COPHOSAURUS, HOLBROOKIA, AND UMA (REPTILIA: IGUANIDAE). Great Basin Naturalist 37: 35-56 - get paper here
  • Gadsden, H. & L.E. Palacios-Orona 1997. Seasonal Dietary Patterns of the Mexican Fringe-toed Lizard (Uma paraphygas) Journal of Herpetology 31 (1): 1-9. - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Lazcano D, Nevárez-de los Reyes M, García-Padilla E, Johnson JD, Mata-Silva V, DeSantis DL, Wilson LD. 2019. The herpetofauna of Coahuila, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13(2) [General Section]: 31–94 (e189) - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Gadsden-Esparza H, Valdez-Lares R, Woolrich-Piña GA 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 748: 65-87 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, J.A. & Smith, H.M. 2007. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Coahuila, Mexico. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 550 pp.
  • Lemos-Espinal, J.A. & Smith, H.M. 2007. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 613 pp.
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Ocampo Salinas, Manuel, J., Castillo-cerón, J. M., Manríquez-morán, N., Goyenechea, I., & Casagranda, M. D. 2019. Endemism of lizards in the Chihuahuan Desert province: An approach based on endemicity analysis. Journal of Arid Environments - get paper here
  • Tanner, W. W. 1970. A catalogue of the fish, amphibian, and reptile types in the Brigham Young University Museum of Natural History. Great Basin Naturalist 30 (4): 219-226 - get paper here
  • Valdez-Lares, R.; R. Muñiz-Martínez; E.Gadsden; G. Aguirre-León; G. Castañeda-Gaytán; R. Gonzalez-Trápaga 2013. Checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, México. Check List 9 (4):714-724 - get paper here
  • Williams, Kenneth L.; Chrapliwy, Pete S.; Smith, Hobart M. 1959. A new fringe-footed lizard (Uma) from Mexico. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 62 (2): 166-172 - get paper here
 
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