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Uranoscodon superciliosus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaTropiduridae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Diving lizard, Mophead Iguana
G: Mopskopfleguan
Portuguese: Calango-Cabeçudo, Dragãozinho-Cabeçudo, Iguaninha, Lagarto, Tamacuaré, Tamaquaré, Tamaquaré-D’água 
SynonymLacerta superciliosa LINNAEUS 1758: 200
Iguana superciliosa — MEYER 1795: 16
Iguana superciliosa — LATREILLE 1801
Agama stellaris — DAUDIN 1802: 404
Agama superciliosa — LINK 1807: 59 ?
Agama tigrina — MERREM 1820 (nom. subst.)
Agama superciliosa — MERREM 1820: 50
Uranoscodon superciliosus — KAUP 1825: 590
Lophyrus xiphosurus SPIX 1825: 9
Lophyrus aureonitens SPIX 1825: 12
Ophryessa superciliosa — BOIE 1825
Ophryessa aureonitens — BOIE 1825
Ophryepa [sic] superciliosa — BOIE 1826: 235
Uraniscodon (Ophryessa) superciliosa — KAUP 1827
Ophryessa superciliosa — GUÉRIN 1829: plate 8
Ophyessa [sic] (Xiphura) superciliosa — GRAY
Ophryoessa [sic] superciliosa — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 238
Hypsibatus (Ophryoessa) superciliosa — FITZINGER 1843: 16
Ophryoessa superciliosa — BOULENGER 1885: 111
Lacerta superciliosa — ANDERSSON 1900: 6
Ophryoessa superciliosa — ANDERSSON 1900: 7
Uranoscodon superciliosa — STEJNEGER 1901
Uranoscodon superciliosa — PETERS et al. 1970: 275
Uranoscodon superciliosus — FROST 1992: 44
Uranoscodon superciliosus — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Uranoscodon superciliosa — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Tropidurus superciliosa — HARVEY & GUTBERLET 2000
Uranoscodon superciliosum — RIVAS et al. 2012
Uranoscondon superciliosus — VAZ-SILVA et al. 2015 (in error) 
DistributionN Brazil (Amazonas, Maranhao, Para, Amapa, Roraima, Rondonia, Mato Grosso), Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, E Venezuela, E Colombia, NE Peru, Bolivia (Beni)

Type locality: “Indiis”  
TypesSyntypes: NRM 109-110; ZMB 591, iconotype after Seba 1735: p. 109.
Lectotype: ZSM 3189/0/2 (ZSMH 3189/0 B [Lophyrus Xiphosurus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Following Ávila-Pires (1995, p. 223), Frost et al. (2001, p. 360), and Carvalho et al. (202X). (1) head relatively small, body and tail compressed latero-laterally; (2) body not extremely flattened dorso-ventrally; (3) skull highly elevated at the level of the orbits; (4) premaxilla broad; (5) nutritive foramina of maxilla not striking enlarged; (6) lingual process of dentary absent, not extending over lingual dentary process of coronoid; (7) angular not strongly reduced; (8) medial centrale present; (9) sternal fontanelle present; (10) circumorbitals not distinct from other small supraorbital scales; (11) subocular series formed by 3–9 subequal scales (no enlarged preocular); (12) poorly defined or absent postmental scale series; (13) strong antegular fold; (14) projecting tufts of elongate, spiny scales on the neck absent; (15) dorsal background in shades of brown; (16) dorsals homogeneous in size, smaller than ventrals, both keeled, mucronate; (17) enlarged middorsal scale row forming a serrate dorsal crest from nape to tip of tail; (18) “flash” marks on pre-cloacal region and underneath thighs of males absent; (19) tail autotomic, terete, elongate, not mucronate; (20) third and fourth fingers subequal; (21) lateral fringe developed on both sides of fourth toes; (22) hemipenes attenuate, without apical disks; (23) arboreal (modified by O. Torres-Carvajal and A. Carvalho, pers. comm. 2021). 
CommentType species: Lacerta superciliosa LINNAEUS 1758: 200 is the type species of the genus Uranoscodon KAUP 1825. Lacerta superciliosa is also the type species of Ophryessa Boie 1826: 119, by subsequent designation of Boie in Schlegel 1826: 235. 
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