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Uromacer frenatus (GÜNTHER, 1865)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Alsophiini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesUromacer frenatus frenatus (GÜNTHER 1865)
Uromacer frenatus chlorauges SCHWARTZ 1976
Uromacer frenatus dorsalis DUNN 1920
Uromacer frenatus wetmorei COCHRAN 1931 
Common NamesE: Slender Hispaniolan Vinesnake, Island Pointed Snake 
SynonymAhaetulla frenata GÜNTHER 1865: 94
Uromacer inornatus GARMAN 1887: 284
Uromacer frenatus — BOULENGER 1893
Uromacer frenatus — BOULENGER 1894: 116
Uromacer frenatus — SCHMIDT 1921: 19
Uromacer frenatus frenatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 239
Uromacer frenatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 663
Uromacer frenatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 778

Uromacer frenatus chlorauges SCHWARTZ 1976
Uromacer wetmorei chlorauges — SCHWARTZ 1979

Uromacer frenatus dorsalis DUNN 1920
Uromacer dorsalis DUNN 1920: 43
Uromacer frenatus dorsalis — SCHWARTZ 1979
Uromacer frenatus dorsalis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 239

Uromacer frenatus wetmorei COCHRAN 1931
Uromacer wetmorei COCHRAN 1931: 91
Uromacer frenatus wetmorei —  SCHWARTZ 1979
Uromacer frenatus wetmorei — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 239 
DistributionHispaniola (S Haiti, SW Dominican Republic), Ile de la Gonave, Ile Grande Cayemite, Ile-a-Vache, Isla Beata

frenatus: South island and Grosse Caye, as far east in the República Dominicana as El Aguacate and Puerto Escondido; in Haiti, known only from the Jacmel region, east to Belle Anse ( = Saltrou). Type locality: Unknown.

chlorauges: Haiti, from Soliette on the north face of the Massif de la Selle, east to the city of Barahona, Repùblica Dominicana, south onto the Peninsula de Barahona and the south slopes of the Massif de la Selle.

dorsalis: Île de la Gonâve.

wetmorei: Isla Beata.

INCERTAE SEDIS: Material from Île-à-Vache and Île Grande Cayemite is only provisionally considered U. f. frenatus. Horn, 1969, noted possible introgression between U. frenatus and U. oxyrhynchus in the Diquini region.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.6.70.
Holotype: CM 56831 [chlorauges]
Holotype: MCZ 12867 [dorsalis]
Holotype: USNM 83891, Collected by: Dr. A. Wetmore and Mr. F. C. Lincoln; Collection Date: May 13, 1931 [wetmorei]
Holotype: MCZ 3610 (also given as 3345) [inornatus] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Maximum SVL 930 mm; elongate body and snout; ventrals 176-205 in males, 172-200 in females; subcaudals 168-224 in males, 161-215 in females; ventrals + subcaudals 351-420 in males, 340-413 in females; dorsal scale rows at midbody 17. Dorsum polychromatic (green, gray, tan, brownish to brown), with or without a well-defined middorsal zone; head and extreme anterior portion of body (dorsally and ventrally) green to yellow-green in monochromatic and polychromatic populations; with or without a pale lateral line on anterior quarter (or less) of body (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 663).

Diagnosis (wetmorei): Snout two and one-half times as long as eye; rostral as broad as deep; scale rows 17-11 in the male; ventrals 177. Related to Uromacer frenatus, but differing from it in scale-count as well as in the exceedingly narrow frontal. (Cochran 1931) 
CommentFrank & Ramus (1995) erroneously listed Uromacer wetmorei SCHWARTZ 1979.

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after Latin frēnātus, perfect passive participle of frēnō (“fit a bridle”), possibly a reference to the dark stripes on the lateral sides of the head.

The subspecies epithet, wetmorei, is named after (Frank) Alexander Wetmore (1886-1978), collector of the type species. He was an ornithologist, avian paleontologist, conservationist, and the sixth Secretary of the Smithsonian, serving from 1945 to 1952. The first Smithsonian Secretary to receive a PhD, Wetmore began his career as a museum assistant and then spent almost fifteen years as a field biologist for the US Biological Survey. He joined the Smithsonian staff in 1924, serving in a variety of administrative positions until his election as Secretary in 1945. He continued an active research career throughout his Smithsonian years and was instrumental in developing research programs in tropical biology.
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Cochran, D. M. 1931. New reptiles from Beata Island, Dominican Republic. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 44: 89-92 - get paper here
  • Dunn, E.R. 1920. On the Haitian snakes of the genera Leimadophis and Uromacer. Proc. New England Zool. Club 7: 37-44 - get paper here
  • Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, Mass. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24: 278-286. - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1865. Fourth account of new Species of Snakes in the Collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 15: 89-98. - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Henderson, R. W. and A. Schwartz 1984. Uromacer frenatus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (357. - get paper here
  • Henderson, R.W., M.H. Binder & G.M. Burghardt 1983. Responses of Neonate Hispaniolan Vine Snakes (Uromacer frenatus) to Prey Extracts Herpetologica 39 (1): 75-77. - get paper here
  • Henderson, Robert W. and Henry S. Horn 1983. The Diet of the Snake Uromacer frenatus dorsalis on Ile de la Gonâve, Haiti. Journal of Herpetology 17 (4): 409-412 - get paper here
  • Mehrtens, J.M. 1987. Living snakes of the world in color. Sterling Publ. Co., hic., New York, NY: 480 pp.
  • Schmidt, K. P. 1921. Notes on the herpetology of Santo Domingo. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 44: 7-20. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. 1976. Variation in the Hispaniolan colubrid snake Uromacer frenatus Günther (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 10 (4): 19-27 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1988. West Indian Amphibian and Reptiles: A Checklist. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contr. Biol. Geol. No. 74: 264 pp. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, Albert 1979. The Status of Uromacer frenatus and Uromacer dorsalis (Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae). Herpetologica 35 (3): 207-216 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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