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Uromastyx dispar HEYDEN, 1827

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Uromastycinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesUromastyx dispar dispar HEYDEN 1827
Uromastyx dispar flavifasciata MERTENS 1962
Uromastyx dispar hodhensis TRAPE, TRAPE & CHIRIO 2012
Uromastyx dispar maliensis JOGER & LAMBERT 1996 
Common NamesE: Sudan Mastigure
G: Südsaharische Dornschwanzagame 
SynonymUromastyx acanthinura dispar HEYDEN 1827
Uromastyx dispar HEYDEN in RÜPPELL 1827: 5
Uromastyx acanthinurus dispar — MERTENS 1962: 430
Uromastyx acanthinurus dispar — WERMUTH 1967: 101
Uromastyx dispar — WILMS & BÖHME 2001
Uromastyx acanthinura dispar — WILMS 2002 (in error)
Uromastyx dispar — BARTS & WILMS 2003
Uromastyx dispar dispar — TRAPE et al. 2012
Uromastyx dispar — TAMAR et al. 2017

Uromastyx dispar flavifasciata MERTENS 1962
Uromastyx acanthinurus flavifasciata MERTENS 1962
Uromastyx flavifasciata — MATEO 1999
Uromastyx dispar flavifasciata — WILMS & BÖHME 2001
Uromastyx flavifasciata obscura MATEO et al. 1999 (fide WILMS & BÖHME 2001)
Uromastyx acanthinura cf. flavifasciata — WILMS 2002: 15
Uromastyx flavifasciata — GENIEZ et al. 2004
Uromastyx dispar flavifasciata — WILMS et al. 2009
Uromastyx dispar flavifasciata — TRAPE et al. 2012

Uromastyx dispar maliensis JOGER & LAMBERT 1996
Uromastyx maliensis JOGER & LAMBERT 1996
Uromastyx dispar maliensis — WILMS & BÖHME 2001
Uromastyx maliensis — WILMS 2002: 18
Uromastyx dispar maliensis — WILMS et al. 2003
Uromastyx dispar maliensis — WILMS et al. 2009
Uromastyx dispar maliensis — SCHLÜTER 2010
Uromastyx dispar maliensis — TRAPE et al. 2012

Uromastyx dispar hodhensis TRAPE, TRAPE & CHIRIO 2012 
Distributiondispar: Mauritania, Sudan, Chad (Tibesti and Ennedi Mountains). Type locality: Wüste bei Ambucol und Dongala, Nubien (= Sudan (Jumhūriyyat)).

flavifasciata: Western Sahara south of 28° northern latitude, Mauritania, SW Algeria; Type locality: approx. 50 km north of Dakar, Senegal (For the reliability of the type locality see BÖHME 1978).

U. flavifasciata obscura has been described from from Gol el Carrashit (Western Sahara) (21°23'N 14°27'W).

maliensis: NW Mali, SW Algeria; Type locality: Mali, 40 south-east of Goa.  
TypesLectotype: SMF 10417 (fide WILMS et al. 2009)
Holotype: SMF 58032; coll. N. Heidrich, 01.11.1961 [flavifasciata]
Holotype: MNHN-RA 2011.0272 (previusly IRD TR.2284). Collected on 7 Dec 2007 by J.-F. Trape [hodhensis]
Holotype: HLMD RA 1545, collected by H. Rudolf. Paratypes: MNHN, CAS, GNHM [maliensis]
Holotype: ULPGC (also as DBULPGC) 7, adult male [obscura] 
DiagnosisDifferential diagnosis: U. dispar is distinguished from U. thomasi and U. princeps by the longer and narrower tail (43.83–70 % of SVLin U. disparvs. 25.00–36.16 % in U. thomasi and 34.62–52.55 % in U. princeps); from the species of the U. ocellata group and U. macfadyeni by the arrangement of the annuli of the tail: last 8–21 forming a continuous scale row each (U. ocellata group and U. macfadyeni) vs. 2–5 whorls forming a continuous scale row in U. dispar; from U. aegyptia and U. occidentalis by the lower scale counts around midbody (238–322 in U. aegyptia, 297–301 in U. occidentalis vs. 164–231 in U. dispar), from U. geyri and U. alfredschmidti by the shorter tail (43.83–70 % of SVLin U. dispar vs. 65.45–98.06 % in U. geyri and 79.31–87.26 % in U. al- fredschmidti). Diagnostic characters between U. acanthinura, U. nigriventris and the subspecies of U. dispar are: Lower number of scales around midbody [145–195 (mean. 165.6) in U. acanthinura, 139–208 (mean: 170.63) in U. nigriventris vs. 187–227 (mean: 205) in U. d. dis- par]; lower number of ventrals [74–96 (mean. 83.1) in U. acanthinura, 66–99 (mean: 83.98) in U. nigriventris vs. 88–118 (mean: 104.5) in U. d. flavifasciata] and lower number of subdigital scales [9–15 (mean: 12.7) in U. acanthinura, 9–17 (mean: 13.15) in U. nigriventris vs. 15–18 (mean: 16.4) in U. d. maliensis]. For a detailed discussion of the differences between acanthinura, nigriventris, dispar, flavifasciataand maliensis see WILMS & BÖHME (2001).

Differential diagnosis (dispar): Discrimination between the subspecies of U. dispar is possible only by means of colouration of adult males. Adult U. d. dispar males are distinguished from adult U. d. flavifasciata males by lacking transversal stripes on the animals back and from adult U. d. maliensis males by the less pronounced black colouration of the body.

Differential diagnosis (flavifasciata): Adult U. d. flavifasciata males can be distinguished from U. d. dispar and U. d. maliensis males by their black body colouration with 5–7 wide, clearly-defined yellow, white or red dorsal crossbands. Occasionally these crossbands can be reduced or be even completely absent.

Differential diagnosis (maliensis): Adult Uromastyx dispar maliensis males differ from adult dispar males by the more pronounced black colouration of the body and from adult flavifasciata males by lacking transversal crossbands on the dorsum. 
CommentStatus of Uromastyx temporalis unclear. U. d. flavifasciata has been erroneously reported from Senegal by WELCH 1982 (fide JOGER 1983). U. d. maliensis has been kept together with U. a. acanthinura and U. a. geyri for 8 years without interbreeding (Joger & Gray 1997). U. d. maliensis has been reported from Egypt although there is no locality record (however, it occurs near the Egyptian border in N Sudan).

Phylogenetics: Samples of U. d. dispar from the eastern edge of the distribution range (i.e., Egypt, Sudan and Chad) are phylogenetically exceptionally close to samples of U. d. flavifasciata from the western edge (i.e., Algeria, Morocco and Mauritania) displaying an extremely low genetic diversity (Tamar et al. 2017). Unfortunately, due to the low representation of two subspecies, U. d. maliensis and U. d. hodhensis, and lack of samples from the contact zones of all four subspecies, Tamar et al. were unable to fully account for their systematic status. 
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