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Urosaurus bicarinatus (DUMÉRIL, 1856)

IUCN Red List - Urosaurus bicarinatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Sceloporinae; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesUrosaurus bicarinatus bicarinatus (DUMÉRIL 1856)
Urosaurus bicarinatus anonymorphus (MITTLEMAN 1941)
Urosaurus bicarinatus nelsoni (SCHMIDT 1921)
Urosaurus bicarinatus spinosus BUMZAHEM & SMITH 1954
Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus (SCHMIDT 1921) 
Common NamesTropical tree lizard 
SynonymPhymatolepis bicarinatus DUMÉRIL 1856: 549
Uta bicarinata — COPE 1864: 177
Uta bicarinata — BOULENGER 1885: 215
Uta bicarinata — GÜNTHER 1885: 62
Uta bi-carinata bi-carinata — MITTLEMAN 1941: 70
Uta unica MITTLEMAN 1941 (fide WIENS 1993)
Urosaurus unicus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 147
Urosaurus bicarinatus bicarinatus — MITTLEMAN 1942: 164
Urosaurus bicarinatus bicarinatus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 146
Urosaurus bicarinatus bicarinatus — CAMARILLO-RANGEL 1983
Urosaurus bicarinatus — LINER 1994
Urosaurus bicarinatus — SMITH & LEMOS-ESPINAL 2005
Urosaurus bicarinatus — MATA-SILVA et al. 2015

Urosaurus bicarinatus anonymorphus (MITTLEMAN 1941)
Uta anonymorpha MITTLEMAN 1941: 34
Uta bicarinata anonymorpha — MITTLEMAN 1941: 71
Urosaurus bicarinatus anonymorphus — MITTLEMAN 1942: 166
Urosaurus bicarinatus anonymorphus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 146
Urosaurus bicarinatus anonymorphus — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008

Urosaurus bicarinatus nelsoni (SCHMIDT 1921)
Uta nelsoni SCHMIDT 1921: 4
Uta bicarinata nelsoni — MITTLEMAN 1941: 72
Urosaurus bicarinatus nelsoni — MITTLEMAN 1942: 168
Urosaurus bicarinatus nelsoni — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 147
Urosaurus bicarinatus nelsoni — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008

Urosaurus bicarinatus spinosus BUMZAHEM & SMITH 1954
Urosaurus bicarinatus spinosus BUMZAHEM & SMITH 1954: 181
Urosaurus bicarinatus spinosus — COCHRAN 1961: 152
Urosaurus bicarinatus spinosus — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008

Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus (SCHMIDT 1921)
Uta tuberculata SCHMIDT 1921: 4
Uta bi-carinata tuberculata — MITTLEMAN 1941: 73
Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus — MITTLEMAN 1942: 169
Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 147
Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus — LEWIS 1956
Urosaurus bicarinatus — MCDIARMID 1963
Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus — WEBB 1984
Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus — LEMOS-ESPINAL et al. 2004
Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008 
DistributionSE Mexico (Sonora, Michoacán, Guerrero, Puebla, Morelos, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Jalisco, Aguascalientes, Durango, México)

bicarinatus: Pacific slopes from Michoacán to C Guerrero, and up the basin of the Río Balsas to S Puebla; Morelos, Sinaloa. Type locality: Mexico. Restricted to Cuernavaca, Morelos by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

anonymorphus: Pacific slopes in E Guerrero, Oaxaca, and W Chiapas. Type locality: Tehuantepec, Oaxaca.

nelsoni: Oaxaca. Type locality: Cuicatlán, Oaxaca.

tuberculatus: Mexico (S Sonora southward to Jalisco, Sinaloa, Colima, Nayarit); Type locality: Colima, Colima, Mexico.

unicus: Chihuahua. Type locality: Chihuahua. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: MNHN Paris (bicarinatus)
Holotype: USNM 46988 (anonymorphus)
Holotype: USNM 46836 (nelsoni) - collected by E.W. Nelson and E.A. Goldman.
Holotype: USNM 113341, male, Tonala, Chiapas, Mexico. H. M. Smith, Jan. 26-30, 1940; Paratype: 113342, 9 , same data. [spinosus]
Holotype: AMNH 13737 (tuberculatus)
Holotype: USNM 14248 (unicus) 
CommentSubspecies and synonymy mostly after SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

Distribution: see map in Feldman et al. 2011. 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Bumzahem, Carlos B. & Hobart M. Smith 1954. A new race of Urosaurus bicarinatus (Reptilia: Squamata) from Chiapas, Mexico. Herpetologica 10: 181-183 - get paper here
  • Camarillo Rangel, J.L. 1983. New herpetological records from the state of Mexico. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 19(2):39-46
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • CASTIGLIA,RICCARDO; FLAVIA ANNESI, ALEXANDRA M.R. BEZERRA, ANDRÉS GARCÍA & OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA 2010. Cytotaxonomy and DNA taxonomy of lizards (Squamata, Sauria) from a tropical dry forest in the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve on the coast of Jalisco, Mexico. Zootaxa 2508: 1–29 - get paper here
  • Castro Franco, R. & M. G. Bustos-Zagal 2003. Lagartijas de Morelos, México: distribución, hábitat y conservación. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n.s.) 88:123-142
  • Castro-Franco, Rubén, María Guasalupe Bustos-Zagal 1994. List of reptiles of Morelos, Mexico, and their distribution in relation to vegetation types. Southwestern Naturalist 39 (2): 171-175 - get paper here
  • Cobarrubias, Edgar Flores; Daniel Cruz-Sáenz, and David Lazcano 2012. Notes on the Herpetofauna of Western Mexico 6: Amphibians and Reptiles of Hostotipaquillo, Jalisco, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 47 (2):21-26 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1864. Contributions to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 16: 166-181. - get paper here
  • Cruz-Elizalde, R., A. Ramírez-Bautista, B. P. Stephenson, V. H. Luja & U. Hernández-Salinas 2017. Variation in female reproduction between populations of the arboreal lizard Urosaurus bicarinatus (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) from two different environments in Mexico Salamandra 53 (3): 359-367 - get paper here
  • Cruz-Sáenz, Daniel, Ángeles Penilla-Juarez and David Lazcano. 2013. Notes on the Herpetofauna of Western Mexico 10: Herpetofauna of the Protected Natural Area “Estero El Salado” and Adjacent Areas in Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 48 (9):117-119
  • Duméril, A. H. A. 1856. Description des reptiles nouveaux ou imparfaitement connus de la collection du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle et remarques sur la classification et les charactères des reptiles. Archives du Muséum Hist. Nat. Paris, 8: 438—588. - get paper here
  • Feldman, Chris R.; Oscar Flores-Villela, Theodore J. Papenfuss 2011. Phylogeny, biogeography, and display evolution in the tree and brush lizard genus Urosaurus (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61 (3): 714-725 - get paper here
  • García, A. & Ceballos, G. 1994. GUIA DE CAMPO DE LOS 'REPTILES Y ANFIBIOS DE LA COSTA DE JALISCO, MEXICO. FUNDACION ECOLOGICA DE CUIXMALA, A.C. INSTITUTO DE BIOLOGIA, UNAM
  • Günther, A. C. L. G. 1885. Reptilia and Batrachia. Biologia Centrali-Américana. Taylor, & Francis, London, 326 pp. [published in parts from 1885-1902; reprint by the SSAR 1987] - get paper here
  • Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329. - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Lemos-Espinal, J. A., G. R. Smith and R. E. Ballinger. 1997. Temperature relationships of the tropical tree lizard (Urosaurus bicarinatus) from the Canon del Zopilote, Guerrero, Mexico. The Herpetological Journal 7: 26-27
  • Lemos-Espinal, J.A. & Smith, H.M. 2007. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 613 pp.
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A., David Chiszar, and Hobart M. Smith 2004. Selected Records of 2003 Lizards from Chihuahua and Sonora, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 39 (9): 164-168
  • Lewis, Thomas H. and Murray L. Johnson 1956. Notes on a Herpetological Collection from Sinaloa. Herpetologica 12 (4): 277-280 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Arturo Rocha, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2013. Urosaurus bicarinatus (tropical tree lizard) bifurcation. Herpetological Review 44 (4): 686-687
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • McCranie, J.R. & Wilson, L.D. 2001. The herpetofauna of the Mexican State of Aguascalientes. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 230: 1-57
  • McDiarmid, R.W., Copp, J.F., & Breedlove, D.E. 1976. Notes on the herpetofauna of western Mexico: new records from Sinaloa and the Tres Marias Islands. Natur. Hist. Mus. of L.A. Co., Contrib. in Sci. (275): 1-17
  • McDiarmid, Roy W. 1963. A collection of reptiles and amphibians from the highland faunal assemblage of western Mexico. Contributions in Science (68): 1-15
  • Mittleman, M. B. 1941. Two new lizards of the genus Uta. Herpetologica 2: 33-38 [1940] - get paper here
  • Mittleman,M.B. 1941. A critical synopsis of the Mexican lizards of the Uta ornata complex, and a description of a new species from Chihuahua. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 31: 66-81
  • Mittleman,M.B. 1942. A summary of the iguanid genus Urosaurus. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 91: 105-181 - get paper here
  • Peterson, A.T. et al. 2004. A preliminary biological survey of Cerro Piedra Larga, Oaxaca, Mexico: Birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and plants. Anales del Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Serie Zoología 75(2): 439-466
  • Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Uriel Hernández-Salinas and J. Gastón Zamora-Abrego 2016. Growth ecology of the tree lizard Urosaurus bicarinatus (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae), in a tropical dry forest of the Chamela Region, Mexico Animal Biology, DOI: 10.1163/15707563-00002497 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K.P. 1921. New species of North American lizards of the genera Holbrookia and Uta. American Museum Novitates 22: 1, 6 - get paper here
  • Smith, G.R. & Lemos-Espinal, J.A. 2005. Comparative escape behavior of four species of Mexican Phrynosomatid Lizards. Herpetologica 61 (3): 225-232 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1935. Descriptions of new species of lizards from Mexico of the genus Uta, with notes on other Mexican species. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 22 (7): 157-183 - get paper here
  • Taylor, Edward H. 1936. Notes on the Herpetological fauna of the Mexican state of Sinaloa. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 24 (20): 505-537 - get paper here
  • Valdez-Lares, R.; R. Muñiz-Martínez; E.Gadsden; G. Aguirre-León; G. Castañeda-Gaytán; R. Gonzalez-Trápaga 2013. Checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, México. Check List 9 (4):714-724 - get paper here
  • Vázquez Díaz, Joel;Quintero Díaz, Gustavo E. 2005. Anfibios y Reptiles de Aguascalientes [2nd ed.]. CONABIO, CIEMA, 318 pp.
  • Webb, R.G. 1984. Herpetogeography in the Mazatlán-Durango Region of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Vetrebrate Ecology and Systematics - A ribute to Henry S. Fitch; Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, pp. 217-241
  • Wiens, J.J. 1993. Phylogenetic systematics of the tree lizards (genus Urosaurus). Herpetologica 49 (4): 399-420 - get paper here
  • Zweifel, Richard G. 1959. Additions to the herpetofauna of Nayarit, Mexico. American Museum Novitates (1953): 1-13 - get paper here
 
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