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Urosaurus bicarinatus (DUMÉRIL, 1856)

IUCN Red List - Urosaurus bicarinatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Sceloporinae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesUrosaurus bicarinatus bicarinatus (DUMÉRIL 1856)
Urosaurus bicarinatus anonymorphus (MITTLEMAN 1941)
Urosaurus bicarinatus nelsoni (SCHMIDT 1921)
Urosaurus bicarinatus spinosus BUMZAHEM & SMITH 1954
Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus (SCHMIDT 1921) 
Common NamesE: Tropical tree lizard
S: Roñito Arboricola 
SynonymPhymatolepis bicarinatus DUMÉRIL 1856: 549
Uta bicarinata — COPE 1864: 177
Uta bicarinata — BOULENGER 1885: 215
Uta bicarinata — GÜNTHER 1885: 62
Uta bicarinata — SMITH 1935
Uta bi-carinata bi-carinata — MITTLEMAN 1941: 70
Uta unica MITTLEMAN 1941 (fide WIENS 1993)
Urosaurus unicus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 147
Urosaurus bicarinatus bicarinatus — MITTLEMAN 1942: 164
Urosaurus bicarinatus bicarinatus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 146
Urosaurus bicarinatus bicarinatus — CAMARILLO-RANGEL 1983
Urosaurus bicarinatus — LINER 1994
Urosaurus bicarinatus — SMITH & LEMOS-ESPINAL 2005
Urosaurus bicarinatus — MATA-SILVA et al. 2015
Urosaurus bicarinatus — CORTÉS-VÁZQUEZ et al. 2022

Urosaurus bicarinatus anonymorphus (MITTLEMAN 1941)
Uta anonymorpha MITTLEMAN 1941: 34
Uta bicarinata anonymorpha — MITTLEMAN 1941: 71
Urosaurus bicarinatus anonymorphus — MITTLEMAN 1942: 166
Urosaurus bicarinatus anonymorphus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 146
Urosaurus bicarinatus anonymorphus — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008

Urosaurus bicarinatus nelsoni (SCHMIDT 1921)
Uta nelsoni SCHMIDT 1921: 4
Uta bicarinata nelsoni — MITTLEMAN 1941: 72
Urosaurus bicarinatus nelsoni — MITTLEMAN 1942: 168
Urosaurus bicarinatus nelsoni — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 147
Urosaurus bicarinatus nelsoni — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008

Urosaurus bicarinatus spinosus BUMZAHEM & SMITH 1954
Urosaurus bicarinatus spinosus BUMZAHEM & SMITH 1954: 181
Urosaurus bicarinatus spinosus — COCHRAN 1961: 152
Urosaurus bicarinatus spinosus — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008

Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus (SCHMIDT 1921)
Uta tuberculata SCHMIDT 1921: 4
Uta tuberculata — SMITH 1935
Uta bi-carinata tuberculata — MITTLEMAN 1941: 73
Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus — MITTLEMAN 1942: 169
Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 147
Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus — LEWIS 1956
Urosaurus bicarinatus — MCDIARMID 1963
Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus — HARDY 1969: 140
Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus — WEBB 1984
Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus — TANNER 1987
Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus — LEMOS-ESPINAL et al. 2004
Urosaurus bicarinatus tuberculatus — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008 
DistributionSE Mexico (Sonora, Michoacán, Guerrero, Puebla, Morelos, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Jalisco, Aguascalientes, Durango, México)

bicarinatus: Pacific slopes from Michoacán to C Guerrero, and up the basin of the Río Balsas to S Puebla; Morelos, Sinaloa. Type locality: Mexico. Restricted to Cuernavaca, Morelos by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

anonymorphus: Pacific slopes in E Guerrero, Oaxaca, and W Chiapas. Type locality: Tehuantepec, Oaxaca.

nelsoni: Oaxaca. Type locality: Cuicatlán, Oaxaca.

tuberculatus: Mexico (S Sonora southward to Jalisco, Sinaloa, Colima, Nayarit); Type locality: Colima, Colima, Mexico.

unicus: Chihuahua. Type locality: Chihuahua.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 0736 (bicarinatus)
Holotype: USNM 46836 - collected by E.W. Nelson and E.A. Goldman [nelsoni]
Holotype: USNM 113341, male, Tonala, Chiapas, Mexico. H. M. Smith, Jan. 26-30, 1940; Paratype: 113342, 9 , same data. [spinosus]
Holotype: AMNH 12737 (not 13737) [tuberculatus]
Holotype: USNM 14248 [unica]
Holotype: USNM 46988; E. W. Nelson and E. A. Goldman collectors. [anonymorphus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (bicarinatus). Two or three vertebral series of enlarged scales extending in a continuous or often broken line from the nape to the basal portion of the tail; on either side of the vertebrals is a single series of greatly enlarged, strongly carinate, imbricate scales, which are often irregularly dispersed, and frequently interrupted by the intrusion of small heterogeneous scales, or the aberrantly large size of a vertebral scale; largest of the dorsals subequal to the enlarged femorals and tibials, which are strongly carinate; external to the enlarged dorsal series, a series of enlarged scales which almost equal the primary dorsals in size and rugosity; these latter scales sometimes in contact with the dorsals, but more often separated from them by the varying width of two to four of the small granular scales of the dorsum; these enlarged scales bordering the primary dorsals are also irregular in size and disposition, but usually occur in a line which commences anterior to the primary dorsals; two or three series of thoracic tubercles; a prominent series of enlarged tubercles, and mucronate and spinose flatter scales on the dorsolateral line; ventral to the dorsolateral series of enlarged scales, are four other series of enlarged tubercles, the lowest of which is in contact with the ventrals; ventrals mucronate, and posteriorly and laterally, they become spinose, as well as keeled; gular scales granular and pavemented, except along the gular fold, where they are elongated, mucronate, and heavily imbricate; frontal most often entire; postfemoral dermal pocket absent, but occasionally represented by a minor whorl of underdeveloped scales.

Coloration (alcoholic) of male: dorsum of head, body and tail grayish, with four to six dark cross-bars, which are occasionally obliterated by a heavy deposition of dark melanins throughout the skin; the cross-bars are usually broken medially, and often alternate; dorsum of body and limbs often flecked with varying shades of gray or brown, lateral areas similar, but usually tinted with a bluish wash; venter of limbs, and interhumeral and interfemoral areas of varying shades of gray, but most often heavily flecked with darker gray or brown; ventral basal portion of tail gray to brown, flecked with darker; long, deep blue abdominal patches, which may or may not be overlaid with a heavy stippling of brown or dark gray; except for a median light area occasionally, the entire gular surface including the infralabials, is heavily mottled with black, gray, or brown. Smith (1935:170), reporting on freshly collected specimens from Morelos and Guerrero, says "the entire gular region is orange, coarsely reticulated or diagonally barred with black except in a large, round median area just anterior to the gular fold."
Measurements (fifty adults, both sexes): head length 12.5 mm; head width, 10.6 mm; snout to vent, 52.5 mm; hind leg, 29.6 mm (Mittleman 1942: 164).

Diagnosis (anonymorphus). Enlarged vertebrals and the single series of enlarged dorsals commencing on the shoulders only slightly craniad of a line joining the anterior points of insertion of the fore-limbs; enlarged dorsals in a continuous series, or only barely encroached upon by a few of the small granules of the back; enlarged dorsals regularly arranged, forming parallel rows on opposite sides of the vertebrals, and not too strongly carinated; external to the enlarged dorsals is a sparse series of large scales, which are a trifle larger than the vertebrals but never approach the enlarged dorsals in size; this series of scales never in contact with the enlarged dorsals, but in contact at several points with the rather poorly developed dorsolateral series of tubercles and mucronate scales, through the medium of small, elongate clusters of slightly enlarged, granular scales; thoracic tubercles not well developed, and not prominent; dorsolateral and lateral tubercles often not enlarged, and similarly often not in clusters, instead there is usually a single enlarged, tubercular scale, surrounded by a few mucronate, spinose, flat scales; ventrals mucronate and spinose, especially posteriorly; laterally, the ventrals become carinate and quite distinctly pavemented; gular scales granular, flat, and pavemented, except in the region of the fold, where they are elongate, spinose, lightly carinate, and imbricate; general appearance not very rugose; frontal always entire; postfemoral dermal pocket regularly lacking. Coloration (alcoholic) of male holotype: quite similar to that of bicarinatus, save that the ventral blue, or blue-black patches are very abbreviated and restricted to the pectoral area. Chin usually not so heavily maculated as in bicarinatus; occasional specimens are uniformly suffused with a deep blue-gray which completely obliterates any traces of the dorsal pattern. Measurements of holotype: head length, 11.5 mm; head width, 9.0 mm; snout to vent, 50.0 mm; hind leg, 27 mm (Mittleman 1942: 166).

Diagnosis (nelsoni): A large species, with a high and short head, long limbs, and a rather elongate body; allied to Uta bicarinata and U. tuberculata. Ventral scales not mucronate; sides not distinctly tuberculate, not at all bristling in appearance; caudal scales irregular in size, in irregular whorls of three verticils each; dorsal series of enlarged scales beginning on the nape, interrupted on the shoulders (Schmidt 1921).

Diagnosis (nelsoni): see also Mittleman 1942: 169

Diagnosis (spinosus). A member of the species Urosaurus bicarinatus with long belly patches as contrasted with the abbreviated patches of anonymorpha;
lateral tubercles large, spinose; one or two enlarged scales on posterior surface of each thigh; divided frontal; combined length of enlarged tem poral scales about equal to width of ear opening (Bumzahem & Smith 1954).

Diagnosis (tuberculatus): Allied to Uta bicarinata, with which it has hitherto been confounded; distinguished from bicarinata by: (1) the longer head and less sloping profile; (2) the much less sharply spinose ventrals; (3) smaller size, not reaching 50 mm. of body length; (4) more regular series of lateral tubercles; (5) larger preauricular spines (Schmidt 1921).

Diagnosis (unicus): Mittleman 1942: 170 
CommentSubspecies and synonymy mostly after SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

Distribution: see map in Feldman et al. 2011. 
EtymologyApparently named after the two rows of keeled scales along the dorsal side of the species, from Latin carina = keel. 
References
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