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Uta encantadae GRISMER, 1994

IUCN Red List - Uta encantadae - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Sceloporinae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Enchanted side-blotched lizard, San Lorenzo Island Lizard
S: Mancha lateral Encantadas 
SynonymUta encantadae GRISMER 1994: 459
Uta stansburiana encantadae — UPTON & MURPHY 1997
Uta encantadae — GRISMER 1999
Uta encantadoe [sic] — FLORES-VILLELA & CANSECO-MÁRQUEZ 2004
Uta encantadae — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008 
DistributionMexico (Islas Encantadas Archipelago, Gulf of California)

Type locality: Isla Encantada, Baja California, Gulf of California, México.  
TypesHolotype: UA 49549, paratypes: SDSNH 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Uta encantadae may be diagnosed from U. nolascensis, U. squamata, U. stansburiana, U. antiqua, U. stellata, and U. palmeri by having long and narrow, laterally directed postzygapophyseal processesof the atlas vertebra and a hypertrophied nasal salt gland with the accompanying morphological rearrangements of the rostrum (see above). It differs from U. lowei and U. tumidarostra in having more narrowand elongate frontoparietals that usually are separated by a small azygous scale, having a significantly lower and higher, respectively, mean number of dorsal scale rows and a significantly higher mean number of supraoculars (Table 1), and a much less dense network of turquois spotting on the dorsum. It further differs from U. lowei in having the posterior mylohyoid foramen deep within the angular as opposed to being located between the angular and surangular,weakly as opposedto stronglykeeled dorsals, the presence of a parietal sulcus, orange as opposed to yellow spots in the gular region of adult males, and a dark, as opposed to light, ventrum. It further differs from U. tumidarostra in having undivided prefrontal scales and an offset paravertebral blotching pattern in adult males (Grismer 1994).

Color in life. Adult males: ground color of dorsal surface of head, limbs, tail, and vertebral region dark gray; faint pattern of darkeroffset paravertebralblotches visible; ground color of lateral body region light brown to dull orange; vertebral region overlain with a network of turquois spotsthat grade laterallyinto yellow-white spots; large black axillary spot present; dorsal and lateral regions of tail nearly solid turquois. Gular and anterior portion of pectoral region very dark gray, lateral gular region usually with orange spots; ventral surfaces of belly and limbs blue-gray to very dark gray; ventral surface of tail blue-gray.
Females and juveniles:ground color of dorsum gray to dark brown; pattern of asymmetrically arranged, small, dark blotches bordered posteriorly by light markings present on body, hindlimbs, and tail. Ventrum like that of adult males (Grismer 1994). 
CommentAbundance: only known from the type locality (Meiri et al. 2017).

Diet: > 50% of this species’ diet appears to consist of isopoda (Grismer 1994). 
Etymologyhis population was named after the Islas Las Encantadas Archipelago to which it and its presumed closest relatives, Uta tumidarostra and U. lowei, are endemic. 
  • Flores-Villela, O. & Canseco-Márquez, L. 2004. Nuevas especies y cambios taxonómicos para la herpetofauna de México. Acta Zoologica Mexicana (n.s.) 20 (2): 115-144 - get paper here
  • Grismer L L 1994. Three new species of intertidal side-blotched lizards (genus Uta) from the Gulf of California, Mexico. Herpetologica 50 (4): 451-474 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee. 1999. An evolutionary classification of reptiles on islands in the Gulf of California, México. Herpetologica 55 (4): 446-469 - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Upton, D. E.; Murphy, R. W. 1997. Phylogeny of the side-blotched lizards (Phrynosomatidae:Uta) based on mtDNA sequences: support for midpeninsular seaway in Baja California. Mol Phylogenet Evol 8 (1): 104-13 - get paper here
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