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Vanzosaura rubricauda (BOULENGER, 1902)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Gymnophthalminae), Gymnophthalmini, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Red-tailed vanzosaur
Portuguese: Calango-do-Rabo-Vermelho, Calanguinho-do-Rabo-Vermelho, Lagartinho, Lagarto-de-Rabo-Vermelho, Piolho-de-Cobra 
SynonymGymnophthalmus rubricauda BOULENGER 1902: 337
Gymnophthalmus rubricauda — WERNER 1910: 32
Gymnophthalmus rubricauda — GALLARDO 1951
Gymnophthalmus rubricauda — GALLARDO 1969: 77
Gymnophthalmus rubricauda — PETERS et al. 1970: 137
Gymnophthalmus rubricaudus — CEI 1986
Vanzosaura rubricauda — RODRIGUES 1991
Gymnophthalmus rubricauda — VANZOLINI 1991
Vanzosaura rubricauda — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Gymnophthalmus rubricauda — ZIEGLER et al. 2002
Vanzosaura rubricauda — CASTOE et al. 2004
Vanzosaura rubricauda — CACCIALI et al. 2016
Vanzosaura rubricauda — AVILA et al. 2021 
DistributionBolivia (Beni, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, Tarija),
N Argentina (Salta, Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Catamarca, Córdoba, La Rioja), Paraguay, Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Piauí)

Type locality: Cruz del Eje, Córdoba, Argentina.  
TypesType: BMNH 1946.8.2.22 (and possibly additional specimens). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Vanzosaura rubricauda is characterized by: (1) 27–43 smooth subcaudals; (2) 12–16 femoral pores in males; (3) snout round in profile; (4) fore- limbs proportionally short in relation to trunk length, with FAL 54.8 ± 0.02% of TRL in females and 57.5 ± 0.02% in males; (5) colour pattern variable, ranging from no stripes to 12 whitish dorsal stripes, which become irregular or discontinuous on the head; (6) inner ventral row of scales slightly narrower or subequal in relation to the external scales; (7) prefrontal scales usually separated (89%); (8) medium to large size for the genus, with the largest male attaining an SVL of 36.0 mm and the largest female attaining an SVL of 41.5 mm; (9) proportionally short tails for the genus, with an average rate of complete tails (not regenerated) in relation to body size (TAL/ SVL) of 1.51 ± 0.14 [from RECODER et al. 2014]
CommentType species: Gymnophthalmus rubricauda BOULENGER 1902 is the type species of the genus Vanzosaura RODRIGUES 1991. For a definition (in Portuguese) see RODRIGUES 1991: 335.

Synonymy: Gymnophthalmus multiscutatus AMARAL 1932 has been revalidated from the synonymy of Vanzosaura rubricauda by RECODER et al. 2014. 
EtymologyThe generic name is a homage to Dr. Paulo Emílio Vanzolini (1924-2013), one of the most distinguished Brazilian zoologists. About Vanzolini see Heyer (2004), Bastos & Sa 2011, and Dirksen 2013. The specific names is derived from Latin “ruber” = red, and “cauda” = tail, for its red tail. 
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  • Avila, Luciano Javier; Martín Miguel Femenías, Cristian Hernán Fulvio Pérez, Mariana Morando 2021. Nuevas especies de Liolaemus para la herpetofauna de la provincia de La Rioja, Argentina. Cuadernos de Herpetología 35 (S1): 223-228
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