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Varanus flavescens (HARDWICKE & GRAY, 1827)

IUCN Red List - Varanus flavescens - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaVaranidae, Platynota, Sauria (lizards) 
Common NamesE: Yellow Monitor
G: Gelbwaran 
SynonymMonitor flavescens HARDWICKE & GRAY 1827: 226
Varanus russelii HEYDEN 1830: 23
Varanus picquotii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 485
Monitor exanthematicus indicus SCHLEGEL 1844 (not Tupinambis indicus DAUDIN, 1802 = Varanus indicus)
Varanus flavescens — CANTOR 1847: 634
Varanus flavescens — GÜNTHER 1864: 65
Varanus flavescens — BOULENGER 1885: 309
Varanus (Empagusia) flavescens - MERTENS 1942
Varanus flavescens — TAYLOR 1963: 924
Varanus (Empagusia) flavescens — VISSER 1985
Varanus flavescens — DE LISLE 1996: 123
Varanus flavescens — AST 2001
Varanus (Empagusia) flavescens — KOCH et al. 2013 
DistributionFlood plains of Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra rivers of Pakistan, India (Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Orissa), Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh.

Type locality: “India". Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesIconotype: in Hardwicke (1829 or later, see comment) 
CommentDistribution: Has been reported from Thailand (Trang) by BOULENGER (cited in TAYLOR 1963), but is not listed for this country by later authors such as CHAN-ARD et al. 1999.

Types: Hardwicke and Gray’s (1827) description of Monitor flavescens was based on a drawing. According to De Lisle (2009), the “iconotype” of V. flavescens was depicted on plates 60 and 61 in Hardwicke’s (1829) “Illustrations of Indian Zoology.” This work, however, was published by Gray as a series between 1830 and 1835 (Wheeler 1998). For M. flavescens, Mertens (1942) referred to plate 67 in the second part (1834) of this work, which probably represents the “iconotype” of this taxon [Koch et al. 2013]. 
  • Ast, Jennifer C. 2001. Mitochondrial DNA Evidence and Evolution in Varanoidea (Squamata). Cladistics 17 (3): 211-226 [erratum in 18 (1):125]
  • Auffenberg W. RAHMAN H. IFFAT F. PERVEEN Z. 1989. A STUDY OF VARANUS-FLAVESCENS HARDWICKE AND GRAY (SAURIA VARANIDAE). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 86 (3): 286-307 [1990]
  • Ávalos, J. de & Martínez Carrión, P. 1997. Warane Reptilia (Münster) 2 (5): 16-21 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Cantor. T. E. 1847. Catalogue of reptiles inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula and Islands. J Asiat. Soc., Bengal, Calcutta. 16 (2): 607 - 656, 897-952, 1026 - 1078 - get paper here
  • De Lisle, H.F. 1996. Natural History of Monitor Lizards. Krieger, Malabar (Florida)
  • Duméril, A.M. C. and G. Bibron. 1836. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol.3. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • FRÝDLOVÁ, PETRA and DANIEL FRYNTA 2010. A test of Rensch’s rule in varanid lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 100: 293–306 - get paper here
  • Gray. J. E. 1835. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, chiefly selected from the collection of Major - General Hardwicke. [Coluber bengalensis] Vol. 2. London (1833-1834): 263 pp., 95 plates - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Hardwicke, Thomas & Gray, J.E. 1827. A synopsis of the species of saurian reptiles, collected in India by Major-General Hardwicke. Zool. J. London 3: 214-229
  • Heyden, C. H. G. von. 1827. Reptilien. In Rüppell, E. Atlas zu Reise im nördlichen Afrika. l. Zoologie. H. L. Brönner, Frankfurt a. M., pp. 1-24 - get paper here
  • Islam, Mazedul & Prasanta Kumar Saikia 2013. Inventory and Natural History of Lizards in Jeypore Rerserve Forest, Assam Reptile Rap (15): 16-26 - get paper here
  • Katiwada, J.R. & Ghimire, B.C. 2009. Conservation Status of Varanus flavescens in Chitwan, Nepal. Biawak 3 (4): 100-105 - get paper here
  • Khan, M. S. 1993. Hemipeneal Morphology of Varanus flavescens (Hardwicke and Gray, 1927), and its Phylogenetic Implications. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 25 (2): 135-138 - get paper here
  • Koch, André; Thomas Ziegler, Wolfgang Böhme, and Mark Auliya 2013. Pressing Problems: Distribution, Threats, and Conservation Status of the Monitor Lizards (Varanidae: Varanus spp.) of Southeast Asia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 8 (Monograph 3):1 − 62.
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karslruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karslruhe, 124 pp.
  • Mahony, Stephen; Md. Kamrul Hasan, Md. Mofizul Kabir, Mushfiq Ahmed and Md. Kamal Hossain. 2009. A catalogue of amphibians and reptiles in the collection of Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Hamadryad 34 (1): 80 – 94
  • Murthy, T.S.N. 2010. The reptile fauna of India. B.R. Publishing, New Delhi, 332 pp.
  • Pianka, E. R. and D. R. King, eds. 2004. Varanoid Lizards of the World. Indiana University Press, 599 pp - get paper here
  • Saikia, U.; Sharma, D.K. & Sharma, R.M. 2007. Checklist of the Reptilian fauna of Himachal Pradesh, India. Reptile Rap (8): 6-9 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp.
  • Smith,M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Taylor, E.H. 1963. The lizards of Thailand. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 44: 687-1077. - get paper here
  • Venugopal, P.D. 2010. An updated and annotated list of Indian lizards (Reptilia: Sauria) based on a review of distribution records and checklists of Indian reptiles. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2 (3): 725-738.
  • Visser, G. J. 1985. Notizen zur Brutbiologie des Gelbwarans Varanus (Empagusia) flavescens (HARDWICKE & GRAY 1827) im Zoo Rotterdam. Salamandra 21 (2/3): 161-168
  • Whitaker, Rom 1981. Bangladesh - Monitors and turtles Hamadryad 6 (3): 7-9 - get paper here
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