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Varanus indicus (DAUDIN, 1802)

IUCN Red List - Varanus indicus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaVaranidae, Platynota, Varanoidea, Anguimorpha, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Mangrove Monitor
G: Pazifikwaran 
SynonymTupinambis indicus DAUDIN 1802: 46
Tupinambus indicus DAUDIN 1802 — BÖHME et al. 2016 (in error)
Varanus guttatus MERREM 1820: 58 (nom. subst. fide COGGER 1983)
Monitor kalabeck LESSON 1830: 52
Monitor chlorostigma GRAY 1831: 26
Varanus chlorostigma — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 489
Monitor exanthematicus indicus — SCHLEGEL 1839: 71
Monitor chlorostigma — SCHLEGEL 1839: 75
Monitor doreanus MEYER 1874: 130
Monitor indicus — PETERS 1876
Monitor chlorostigma — GÜNTHER 1879: 84
Varanus indicus — BOULENGER 1883
Varanus indicus — BOULENGER 1885: 316
Varanus indicus — DE ROOIJ 1915: 148
Varanus indicus indicus — MERTENS 1926
Varanus indicus rouxi MERTENS 1926
Varanus tsukamotoi KISHIDA 1929 (fide BÖHME 2002)
Varanus leucostigma — HEDIGER 1934: 497 (in error for Monitor chlorostigma)
Varanus indicus — BÖHME 1994
Varanus cerambonensis PHILIPP, BÖHME & ZIEGLER 1999
Varanus indicus — COGGER 2000: 368
Varanus cerambonensis — AST 2001
Varanus (Euprepiosaurus) indicus — ZIEGLER et al. 2007
Varanus (Euprepiosaurus) cerambonensis — KOCH et al. 2013
Varanus (Euprepiosaurus) cerambonensis — BUCKLITSCH et al. 2016: 50
Varanus (Euprepiosaurus) indicus — BUCKLITSCH et al. 2016: 50 
DistributionAustralia (Northern Territory, Queensland)
Indonesia (Moluccas, Aru Islands, Talaud, Irian Jaya, Timor, Halmahera, Morotai), Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago, Caroline Islands, Marshall Islands, Micronesia (Lukunor Atoll, Uman District Islands etc.),
Guam (G. Rodda, pers. comm., 13 March 2016)
Northern Mariana Islands (Saipan) (Hileman et al. 2020)

Type locality: Ambon, Moluccas, Indonesia; corrected to “northwestern New Guinea” by Böhme et al. 2016.

cerambonensis: Indonesia, Mollucas (Seram, Ambon, Banda, Buru, Obi); Type locality: Laimu (30°19'S, 129°44'E, Seram (= Ceram)

kalabek: Type locality: Fofak (as Offack) Bay, N coast of Waigeu, Indonesia

douarrha: Type locality: Praslin Harbour, New Ireland (as New Mecklenberg), Papua New Guinea

chlorostigma: Type locality: Rawack Is., N of Waigeu, Indonesia

doreanus: Papua New Guinea; Type locality: Doreh, Berou Peninsula, NW New Guinea

tsukawotoi: Type locality: Saipan, Caroline Ils.

spinulosus: Type locality: from George's Is., Solomon Ils.  
TypesNeotype: RMNH 40846, designated by Weijola 2015. Philipp et al. 1999 designated ZFMK 70650 as neotype. Böhme et al. 2016 disputed Weijola’s 2015 neotype and who argued to maintain the neotype designation of Philipp et al. 1999. However, ICZN Opinion 2451 confirmed RMNH 40846 as neotype. See also Weijola 2017 and ICZN 2020 (Opinion 2451).
Holotype: ZFMK 70617 (on loan from MZB); paratypes: RMNH 3189; ZMA 11146; RMNH 7297 (seven specimens and one head); RMNH 3'50, 3152 and 7196; 2MB 4848 [cerambonensis]
Syntypes: MNHN-RA, presumed lost [Monitor chlorostigma]
Holotype: SMF 11583, from Durdjela, Wammer, Aru Ils., Indonesia [rouxi]
Holotype: NHMW = NMW 3709 [spinulosus] 
CommentSynonymy: Varanus indicus jobiensis AHL 1932 has been synonymized with Varanus indicus (e.g. by COGGER 1983) but is now considered as a valid species. Synonymy mainly after COGGER 1983 and DE LISLE 2009. Original description at (see link below). The presence of V. indicus in Sulawesi is questionable (Koch & Böhme 2005). Weijola et al. 2017 removed Monitor douarrha LESSON 1830: 53 from the synonymy of V. indicus. Varanus cerambonensis was synonymized with V. indicus by Weijola 2015, 2017. This was later confirmed by the ICZN in 2020 with the acceptance of the replacement neotype for V. indicus.

Distribution: not on Sulawesi. Reports from there could not be confirmed (fide A. Koch, pers. comm., 18 July 2018). Phillip et al. (1999) mentioned a record of V. cerambonensis from New Guinea, but without detailed locality. Weijola and Sweet (2015) argue that the species on Ambon, Seram, Buru, and Saparua is all V. indicus).

Habitat: terrestrial, but may enter brackish (”marine”) habitats in the mangroves.

NCBI taxonomy ID: 437649 [cerambonensis] 
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