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Varanus komodoensis OUWENS, 1912

IUCN Red List - Varanus komodoensis - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaVaranidae, Platynota, Anguimorpha, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesE: Komodo Dragon
G: Komodowaran 
SynonymVaranus komodoensis OUWENS 1912
Varanus (Varanus) komodoensis — MERTENS 1942
Varanus komodoensis — DE ROOIJ 1915: 150
Varanus komodoensis — DE LISLE 1996: 130
Varanus komodoensis — AST 2001
Varanus (Varanus) komodoensis — KOCH et al. 2013
Varanus (Varanus) komodoensis — BUCKLITSCH et al. 2016: 50 
DistributionKomodo, Padar, Rintja, Flores, Lesser Sunda region of Indonesia

Type locality: Komodo Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia.  
ReproductionParthenogenesis has recently been reported for this species (WATTS et al. 2006). 
TypesSyntype: MZB (others probably in RMNH fide ISKANDAR & MUMPUNI 2002) 
CommentDistribution: SPAWLS et al. (2001) list this species also for Eastern Africa. 
  • Amer, Sayed A. M. and Yoshinori Kumazawa 2008. Timing of a mtDNA gene rearrangement and intercontinental dispersal of varanid lizards. Genes Genet. Syst. 83: 275–280
  • Arida, E. & Böhme, W. 2010. The Origin of Varanus: When Fossils, Morphology, and Molecules Alone Are Never Enough. Biawak 4 (4): 117-124 - get paper here
  • Ast, Jennifer C. 2001. Mitochondrial DNA Evidence and Evolution in Varanoidea (Squamata). Cladistics 17 (3): 211-226 [erratum in 18 (1):125]
  • Bonetti, Mathilde 2002. 100 Sauri. Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp.
  • Brenneman, Rick A.; Robert C. Barber; Ryan M. Huebinger; Julie A. Sommer & Edward E. Louis Jr. 2007. Characterization of ten microsatellite marker loci in the Komodo Monitor (Varanus komodoensis). Conservation Genetics 8:1017–1020
  • BUCKLITSCH, YANNICK; WOLFGANG BÖHME, ANDRÉ KOCH 2016. Scale Morphology and Micro-Structure of Monitor Lizards (Squamata: Varanidae: Varanus spp.) and their Allies: Implications for Systematics, Ecology, and Conservation. Zootaxa 4153 (1): 001–192
  • Bull, J. J.; Tim S. Jessop, Marvin Whiteley 2010. Deathly Drool: Evolutionary and Ecological Basis of Septic Bacteria in Komodo Dragon Mouths. PLoS One 5 (6): e11097 - get paper here
  • Burden, William Douglas 1928. Results of the Douglas Burden Expedition to the Island of Komodo V. Observations on the habits and distribution of Varanus komodensis Ouwens. American Museum Novitates (316): 1-10 - get paper here
  • Ciofi C.; Beaumont M. A.; Swingland I. R.; Bruford M. W. 1999. Genetic divergence and units for conservation in the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis. Proceedings: Biological Sciences 266 (1435): 2269-2269
  • Ciofi, C. et al. 2011. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for fine-scale population genetic analysis of the Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis based on 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Molecular Ecology Resources 11: 550–556
  • De Lisle, H.F. 1996. Natural History of Monitor Lizards. Krieger, Malabar (Florida)
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp.
  • Dunn, Emmett Reid; Burden, W. Douglas 1927. Results of the Douglas Burden Expedition to the Island of Komodo. I, Notes on Varanus komodoensis. American Museum novitates (286) - get paper here
  • Earley, Ryan L.; Omar Attum, Perri Eason 2002. Varanid combat: perspectives from game theory. Amphibia-Reptilia 23 (4): 469-485 - get paper here
  • Fry, Bryan G.; Stephen Wroe, Wouter Teeuwisse, Matthias J. P. van Osch, Karen Moreno, Janette Ingle, Colin McHenry, Toni Ferrara, Phillip Clausen, Holger Scheib, Kelly L. Winter, Laura Greisman, Kim Roelants, Louise van der Weerd, Christofer J. Cleme 2009. A central role for venom in predation by Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) and the extinct giant Varanus (Megalania) priscus. PNAS 106: 8969-8974
  • FRÝDLOVÁ, PETRA and DANIEL FRYNTA 2010. A test of Rensch’s rule in varanid lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 100: 293–306 - get paper here
  • Hien, P. 2003. Erster photographischer Nachweis von ungewöhnlich gefärbten Varanus komodoensis (OUWENS 1912) bei Riung, Flores, Indonesien. Sauria (Berlin) 25 (1): 3-9 - get paper here
  • Horn, H.-G. 1985. Beiträge zum Verhalten von Waranen: Die Ritualkämpfe von Varanus komodoensis OUWENS, 1912 und V. semiremex PETERS, 1869 sowie die Imponierphasen der Ritualkämpfe von V. timorensis timorensis (GRAY, 1831) und V. t. similis MERTENS, 1958 (Sauria: Varan Salamandra 21 (2-3): 169-179 - get paper here
  • Iskandar, Djoko T. and Mumpuni 2002. The herpetological type specimens in the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense Collection. Hamadryad 27 (1):123-135
  • JESSOP, T.S., T. MADSEN, J. SUMMER, H. RUDIHARTO, J.A. PHILLIPS and C. CIOFI 2006. Maximum body size among insular Komodo dragon populations covaries with large prey density. Oikos 112:422-429.
  • Johnson Pokorná M, Altmanová M, Rovatsos M, Velenský P, Vodička R, Rehák I, Kratochvíl L. 2016. First Description of the Karyotype and Sex Chromosomes in the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis). Cytogenet Genome Res. 148(4), DOI:10.1159/000447340 - get paper here
  • Kern, James A. 1968. Dragon Lizards of Komodo. National Geographic 134(6): 872-880
  • Koch A, Ziegler T, Böhme W, Arida E, Auliya M. 2013. Pressing Problems: Distribution, Threats, and Conservation Status of the Monitor Lizards (Varanidae: Varanus spp.) of Southeast Asia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Herp. Cons. Biol. 8 (Monograph 3): 1 − 62. - get paper here
  • Kumazawa, Y.; Endo, H 2004. Mitochondrial genome of the Komodo dragon: efficient sequencing method with reptile-oriented primers and novel gene rearrangements. DNA Research 11 (2): 115-125
  • Kwet, A. 2012. Die hundertjährigen Drachen von Komodo. Terraria-Elaphe 2012 (5): 107-111 - get paper here
  • Lönnberg, Einar 1928. Notes on Varanus komodensis Ouwens and its affinities. Arkiv för Zoologi 19A (27): 1-11
  • McCurry MR, Mahony M, Clausen PD, Quayle MR, Walmsley CW, Jessop TS, et al. 2015. The Relationship between Cranial Structure, Biomechanical Performance and Ecological Diversity in Varanoid Lizards. PLoS One 10 (6): e0130625. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130625 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1930. Die Amphibien und Reptilien der Inseln Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa und Flores. Senck. Naturf. Gesell., Frankfurt am Main, Abhandl. 42(3): 117-344.
  • Mertens, R. 1942. Die Familie der Warane (Varanidae), 3. Teil: Taxonomie. Abh. Senckenb. naturf. Ges., 466: 235-391
  • Ouwens, P.A. 1912. On a large Varanus species from the island of Komodo. Bull. Jardin Bot. Buitenzorg 6: 1-3 - get paper here
  • PACKARD, GARY C. and THOMAS J. BOARDMAN 2009. Bias in interspecific allometry: examples from morphological scaling in varanid lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 96, 296–305. - get paper here
  • Pianka, E. R. and D. R. King, eds. 2004. Varanoid Lizards of the World. Indiana University Press, 599 pp - get paper here
  • Recchio, I. and S. Kasielke 2017. Successful blood collection technique for sex determination of incubating Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis) eggs at the Los Angeles Zoo. Herpetological Review 48 (2): 366-368
  • Rese, R. 1988. Beitrag zur Lebenserwartung von Grosswaranen in Gefangenschaft. Sauria 10 (1): 25-26 - get paper here
  • Switak, Karl H. 2006. Adventures in Green Python Country. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 364 pp. - get paper here
  • Watts PC, Buley KR, Sanderson S, Boardman W, Ciofi C, Gibson R. 2006. Parthenogenesis in Komodo dragons. Nature 444(7122):1021-2
  • Werning, Heiko 1997. Die verwöhnten "Drachen" von Komodo. Reptilia (Münster) 2 (5): 26-27 - get paper here
  • ZIEGLER, THOMAS; ANNA RAUHAUS & IRI GILL 2016. A Preliminary Review of Monitor Lizards in Zoological Gardens Biawak 10 (1): 26 - get paper here
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