You are here » home advanced search Varanus salvator

Varanus salvator (LAURENTI, 1768)

IUCN Red List - Varanus salvator - Least Concern, LC

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Varanus salvator?

Add your own observation of
Varanus salvator »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaVaranidae, Platynota, Anguimorpha, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesVaranus salvator salvator (LAURENTI 1768)
Varanus salvator andamanensis DERANIYAGALA 1944
Varanus salvator bivittatus (KUHL 1820)
Varanus salvator macromaculatus DERANIYAGALA 1944
Varanus salvator ziegleri KOCH & BÖHME 2010 
Common NamesE: Common Water Monitor
G: Bindenwaran 
SynonymStellio salvator LAURENTI 1768: 58
Tupinambis elegans DAUDIN 1802 (in part)
Monitor nigricans CUVIER 1829: 27
Monitor exilis GRAY in GRIFFITH 1831
Monitor bivittatus var. celebensis SCHLEGEL 1844
Hydrosaurus salvator — GRAY 1845: 13
Monitor salvator — BLYTH 1846: 376
Varanus salvator — CANTOR 1847: 635
Hydrosaurus salvator — KELAART 1854: 137
Varanus salvator — BOULENGER 1885: 314
Varanus salvator — DE ROOIJ 1915: 146
Varanus scutigerulus BARBOUR 1932
Varanus salvator salvator — MERTENS 1937
Varanus salvator kabaragoya DERANIYAGALA 1947
Varanus salvator salvator — DE LISLE 1996: 134
Varanus salvator — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 292
Varanus (Soterosaurus) salvator — ZIEGLER & BÖHME 1997
Varanus salvator — COX et al. 1998: 107
Varanus salvator celebensis — DE LISLE 2009
Varanus (Soterosaurus) salvator — KOCH et al. 2013

Varanus salvator andamanensis DERANIYAGALA 1944
Varanus salvator andamanensis - MERTENS 1963
Varanus salvator andamanensis — BÖHME 2002
Varanus salvator andamanensis — KOCH et al. 2007

Varanus salvator bivittatus (KUHL 1820)
Tupinambis bivittatus KUHL 1820
Monitor nigricans CUVIER 1829: 27 (fide MERTENS 1963)
Lacerta Bivittatus — CUVIER 1831: 110
Varanus bivittatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 486
Monitor bivittatus var. javanica SCHLEGEL 1844
Varanus crocodilinus OWEN 1845
Varanus salvator bivittatus — MERTENS 1959: 17
Varanus salvator bivittatus — BÖHME 2002
Varanus (Soterosaurus) salvator bivittatus — KOCH et al. 2013

Varanus salvator macromaculatus DERANIYAGALA 1944
Varanus vittatus LESSON 1834: 307
Varanus salvator nicobariensis DERANIYAGALA 1947
Varanus salvator komaini NUTAPHAND 1987
Varanus salvator komaini — DWYER & PEREZ 2007
Varanus salvator macromaculatus — KOCH et al. 2007
Varanus salvator nicobariensis — MURTHY 2010
Varanus (Soterosaurus) salvator macromaculatus — KOCH et al. 2013
Varanus salvator macromaculatus — SACHA 2015

Varanus salvator ziegleri KOCH & BÖHME 2010
Varanus (Soterosaurus) salvator ziegleri — KOCH et al. 2013 
DistributionSri Lanka, NE India (incl. Assam, Mizoram, Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands), Bangladesh, Myanmar (= Burma), Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, S China (Hong Kong, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, S Yunnan), Thailand (incl. Phuket), Malaysia (incl. Pulau Pangkor, Pulau Tioman, Johor: Pulau Besar), Singapore, Indonesia (Borneo, Sumatra, Nias, Enggano, Bangka, Kalimantan, Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Wetar, Sulawesi),

USA (possibly introduced to Florida)

adamanensis: Andaman Islands; Type locality: Port Blair, Andaman Islands.

bivittatus: Indonesia (Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Ombai (Alor), Komodo, Wetar and some neighbouring islands within the Sunda arch); Type locality: Java (designated by
MERTENS 1959).

komaini: Thailand. Type locality: Amphoe La-ngu, Satun Prov., Thailand, and Thai-Malaysian bodeer area.

macromaculatus: Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo)

salvator: restricted to Sri Lanka (KOCH et al. 2007); Type locality: America (in error); emended to "Ceylon" (= Sri Lanka) by Mertens (1959).

ziegleri: Obi Island, Indonesia; Type locality: Kali Telaga, Obi Island, Maluku Province, Central Indonesia. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesNeotype: ZFMK 22092, juvenile, collected by B. Schulz, March 1978, donated by B. Schulz, April 1978.
Holotype: ZSI 22176 (juvenile); ZSI 22174 (paratype) [andamanensis]
Lectotype: RMNH 3179, designated by De Lisle 2009 [celebensis]
Holotype: iconotype: Plate 30, fig. 2 in Seba's "Thesaurus", Tome II.
Lectotype: MNHN 871 [macromaculatus]
Syntypes: MNHN [Monitor nigricans] 
CommentSubspecies: Varanus salvator togianus (PETERS 1872), V.s. nuchalis, V. s. cumingi, and Varanus salvator marmoratus (WIEGMANN 1834) have been elevated to full species status by KOCH et al. (2007).

Conservation: Threatened by the reptile leather industry which exports ~40,000 skins from Indonesia each year (KOCH 2010).

Habitat: near rivers, has also been seen “far out at sea” [”marine” habitat]

Distribution: possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012). 
References
  • Amarasinghe, A. A. T., G. Chathuranga and D. M. S. S. Karunarathna 2009. Varanus salvator (Laurenti, 1768) in Rathgama lagoon in Galle District, Sri Lanka. Biawak 3 (3): 81-84 - get paper here
  • Auliya, M. 2006. Taxonomy, Life History, and conservation of giant reptiles in west Kalimantan. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 432 pp. - get paper here
  • Baier, F. 2005. Herpetologische Reiseeindrücke aus Sri Lanka. Elaphe 13 (4): 59-64
  • Barbour, Thomas 1932. Proc. New England zool. Club 13: 1
  • Bauer, A.M.; Günther,R. & Klipfel,M. 1995. The herpetological contributions of Wilhelm C.H. Peters (1815-1883). SSAR Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, 714 pp.
  • Bauer, Aaron M. and Rainer Günther 2013. Origin and identity of the von Borcke collection of amphibians and reptiles in the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin: A cache of Seba specimens?. Zoosystematics and Evolution 89 (1): 167–185 - get paper here
  • Bennett, Daniel 1995. The water monitor Varanus salvator. Reptilian 3 (8): 15-21
  • Bennett, Daniel 1998. Monitor Lizards Natural History, Biology and Husbandry. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt
  • Blyth, E. 1846. Notes on the fauna of the Nicobar islands. J. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 15: 367-379 - get paper here
  • Bobrov V.V., Semenov D.V. 2008. Lizards of Vietnam [in Russian]. Moscow, 236 pp.
  • Böhme, W. 2002. Langjährige Haltung und Altersrekord eines Bindenwarans, Varanus salvator (LAURENTI 1768) im Terrarium: zweithöchstes belegtes individuelles Lebensalter eines Vertreters der Varanidae. Herpetofauna 24 (141): 26-28 - get paper here
  • Böhme, W. & Koch, A. 2010. On the type selection and re-typification of two monitor lizard taxa (Squamata: Varanidae): Monitor bivittatus celebensis Schlegel, 1844 and Monitor kordensis Meyer, 1874; with some comments and corrections on other name-bearing type specimens. Zootaxa 2440: 60–68
  • Bonetti, Mathilde 2002. 100 Sauri. Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp.
  • Bong Heang, Kiew 1987. An annotated checklist of the herpetofauna of Ulu Endau, Johore, Malaysia. Malayan Nature J. 41(2-3): 413-423.
  • BORDEN, R. 2007. Varanus salvator (Asian Water Monitor) Migration. Biawak 1 (2): 84 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Brown, Rafe M.; Ferner, John W.; Sison, Rogelio V.; Gonzales, Pedro C.; Kennedy, Robert S. 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of the Zambales Mountains of Luzon Island, Republic of the Philippines. Herpetological Natural History 4 (1): 1-22
  • Brown,R.M.; McGuire, J.A.; Ferner,J.W.; Icarangal Jr., N. & Kennedy, R.S. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Luzon island, II: preliminary report on the herptofauna of Aurora Memorial national Park, Philippines. Hamadryad 25 (2): 175-195 - get paper here
  • Brygoo, E. R. 1987. Les types de Varanides (Reptiles, Sauriens) du Museum national d'Histoire naturelle. Catalogue critique. Bulletin du Museum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, 4e ser., 9, sect. A (Zool., BioI. & Ecol. anim.), (2), supplement, 21-38.
  • Cantor. T. E. 1847. Catalogue of reptiles inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula and Islands. J Asiat. Soc., Bengal, Calcutta. 16 (2): 607 - 656, 897-952, 1026 - 1078 - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cota, M. & Sommerlad, R. 2013. Notes and Observations on the Fish Prey of Varanus salvator macromaculatus (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanidae) in Thailand with a Review of the Fish Prey of the Varanus salvator Complex known to Date Biawak 7 (2): 63 - get paper here
  • Cota, M.; Chan-ard, T. & Makchai, S. 2009. Geographical Distribution and Regional Variation of Varanus salvator macromaculatus in Thailand. Biawak 3 (4): 134-143 - get paper here
  • COTA, MICHAEL 2011. Burrows With Underwater Entrances, Water-filled Entrances, and Nocturnal Retirement of Varanus salvator macromaculatus in Thailand. Biawak 5 (3): 44-47
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Cuvier, G. 1831. The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier, ... with additional descriptions of all the species hitherto named, and of many not before noticed, by Edward Griffith... and others. Vol. 9. Whittaker, Treacher and Co., London, 481 pp. - get paper here
  • Cuvier, G. J. L. N. F. D. 1829. Le Regne Animal Distribué, d'apres son Organisation, pur servir de base à l'Histoire naturelle des Animaux et d'introduction à l'Anatomie Comparé. Nouvelle Edition [second edition]. Vol. 2. Les Reptiles. Déterville, Paris, i-xvi, 1-406 - get paper here
  • Das , I. 2004. Lizards of Borneo. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, Borneo
  • Das, Indraneil 1988. New evidence of the occurrence of water monitor (Varanus salvator) in Meghalaya. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 86: 253-255
  • De Lisle, H.F. 2007. Observations on Varanus s. salvator in North Sulawesi. Biawak 1 (2): 59-66 - get paper here
  • De Lisle, H.F. 2009. Catalog of the genus Varanus (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanidae) with new designations of a neotype and a lectotype. ZooNova 1(2): 8-32
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp.
  • Deraniyagala, P. E. P. 1944. Four New Races of the ''Kabaragoya'' Lizard Varanus salvator. Spolia Zeylanica 24: 59-62
  • DU, Yu; Longhui LIN; Yuntao YAO; Chixian LIN; Xiang JI 2014. Body Size and Reproductive Tactics in Varanid lizards. Asian Herpetological Research 5 (4): 263-270 doi 10.3724/SP.J.1245.2014.00263 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M. C. and G. Bibron. 1836. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol.3. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Dwyer, Q. & Perez, M. 2007. Husbandry and reproduction of the Black Water Monitor, Varanus salvator komaini. Biawak 1 (1): 13-20 - get paper here
  • DWYER, Q. and M. PEREZ 2007. Varanus salvator komaini (Black Water Monitor) Reproduction. Biawak 1 (2): 89 - get paper here
  • Earley, Ryan L.; Omar Attum, Perri Eason 2002. Varanid combat: perspectives from game theory. Amphibia-Reptilia 23 (4): 469-485 - get paper here
  • Ferner, John W., Rafe M. Brown, Rogelio V. Sison and Robert S. Kennedy 2000. The amphibians and reptiles of Panay Island, Philippines. Asiatic Herpetological Research 9: 1-37 - get paper here
  • Franco, R. 2007. Varanus salvator (Asian Water monitor). Palawan, Philippines. Biawak 1 (1): 41 - get paper here
  • FRÝDLOVÁ, PETRA and DANIEL FRYNTA 2010. A test of Rensch’s rule in varanid lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 100: 293–306 - get paper here
  • Gaulke M. 1999. Die Herpetofauna von Calauit Island (Calamianes-Inseln, Provinz Palawan, Philippinen) (Amphibia et Reptilia). Faun. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 21 (19)
  • Gaulke, M. 1986. Über die Situation des Bindenwarans (Varanus salvator nuchalis) auf Negros, Philippinen. Herpetofauna 8 (44): 16-18 - get paper here
  • Gaulke, M. 2001. Die Herpetofauna von Sibaliw (Panay), einem der letzten Tieflandregenwaldgebiete der West-Visayas, Philippinen. Teil III. Echsen und Diskussion. Herpetofauna 23 (132): 5-18 - get paper here
  • Gaulke, Maren 1989. Zur Biologie des Bindenwaranes, unter Berücksichtgung der paläogeographischen Verbreitung und der phylogenetischen Entwicklung der Varanidae. Courier Forschungsinsitut Senckenberg (112): 1-241
  • Gaulke, Maren 1991. Systematic relationships of the Philippine water monitors as compared with Varanus s. salvator, with a discussion of dispersal routes. Mertensiella 2: 154-167
  • Gaulke, Maren 1992. Taxonomy and biology of Philippine water monitors (Varanus salvator). Philipppine Journal of Science 121(4): 345-381
  • Gaulke, Maren 1992. Distribution, population density, and exploitation of the water monitor (Varanus salvator ) in the Philippines. Hamadryad 17: 21-27 - get paper here
  • Gaulke, Maren 2001. Varanus salvator nuchalis, eine wenig bekannte Unterart des Bindenwarans. Draco 7:42-49 - get paper here
  • Gaulke, Maren;de Silva, Anslem 1997. Monitor lizards of Sri Lanka: Preliminary investigations on their population structure. Lyriocephalus 3 (1): 1-5
  • Ghose, Animesh, Evan Arambul, Jonathan Hakim, Erin Trageser, Scott Trageser, Ash Wiscovitz, Shahriar caesar Rahman, Lachlan Gilding, Max Jackson and Dean Lambert. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Varanus salvator (common water monitor). Herpetological Review 46 (4): 571
  • Gorgoza 1888. Ann. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 17: 275
  • Gramentz, D. 2008. Einige Bemerkungen zur Ökologie und zum Verhalten von Varanus salvator (LAURENTI, 1768) im Südwesten von Sri Lanka. Sauria 30 (3): 13-20 - get paper here
  • Gramentz, D. 2010. Zur Wahl des Ruheplatzes von Varanus salvator (LAURENTI, 1768) an einem Flussufer in Sri Lanka. Sauria 32 (1): 55-58 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Thy Neang, Thou Chav, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Jamie R. Oaks, Jeremy Holden, Jesse L. Grismer, Thomas R. Szutz and Timothy M. Youmans 2008. Additional amphibians and reptiles from the Phnom Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary in Northwestern Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia, with comments on their taxonomy and the discovery of three new species. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 56 (1): 161-175
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Amphibians and reptiles of the Seribuat Archipelago. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 239 pp.
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and their adjacent archipelagos. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 728 pp. [review in Herp. Rev. 43: 155]
  • Grismer, L.L., Neang, T., Chav, T. & Grismer, J.L. 2008. Checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the Cardamom region of Southwestern Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2008(1): 12–28 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; Youmans, T.M.; Wood, P.L. & Grismer, J.L. 2006. Checklist of the herpetofauna of the Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia with comments on biogeography, natural history, and adaptive types. Raffles Bull. Zool. 54 (1): 157-180
  • Gumprecht, A. 2007. Die Insel der Warane [Ko Rok, Thailand]. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (65): 72-83 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1872. On two species of Hydrosaurus from the Philippine Islands. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1872: 145-146 - get paper here
  • Hennig, A.S. 2005. Freilandbeobachtungen an Bindenwaranen in Sri Lanka. Reptilia (Münster) 10 (55): 3 - get paper here
  • Hien,P. Grossmann,W. & Schäfer, C. 2001. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der landbewohnenden Reptilienfauna von Pulau Tioman, West-Malaysia. Sauria 23 (4): 11-28 - get paper here
  • Islam, Mazedul & Prasanta Kumar Saikia 2013. Inventory and Natural History of Lizards in Jeypore Rerserve Forest, Assam. Reptile Rap (15): 16-26 - get paper here
  • Jayaneththi, Hareschandra Bandula 2015. Vertebrate fauna of Morankanda-Mukalana secondary forest patch in Sri Lanka: A checklist reported from 2004-2008 survey. RUHUNA JOURNAL OF SCIENCE<br />Vol 6: 21- 41
  • Kaiser, H., D. Taylor, S. Heacox, P. Landry, C. Sanchez, A. V. Ribeiro, L. L. de Araujo et al. 2013. Conservation education in a post-conflict country: five herpetological case studies in Timor-Leste. Salamandra 49 (2): 74-86 - get paper here
  • Karunarathna, D. M. S. S., A. A. T. Amarasinghe and A. De Vos 2008. Preliminary notes on the Monitor Lizards (Family: Varanidae) within the National Zoological Gardens (NZG) Dehiwala, Colombo District, Sri Lanka. Biawak 2 (3): 109-118 - get paper here
  • KARUNARATHNA, D.M.S. SURANJAN; A.A. THASUN AMARASINGHE and E.M. KASUN B.KANAYAKE 2008. Observed Predation on a Suckermouth Catfi sh (Hypostomus plecostomus) by a Water Monitor (Varanus salvator) in Bellanwila-Attidiya Sanctuary. Biawak 2 (1): 37-39 - get paper here
  • KARUNARATHNA, D.M.S. SURANJAN; A.A. THASUN AMARASINGHE, MAJINTHA B. MADAWALA & H.K. DUSHANTHA KANDAMBI 2012. Population Status of Two Varanus species (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae) in Sri Lanka’s Puttalam Lagoon System, with Notes on their Diet and Conservation Status. Biawak 6 (1): 22-33 - get paper here
  • Karunarathna, Suranjan; D. M. S. and A. A. Thasun Amarasinghe 2011. A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF THE REPTILE FAUNA IN NILGALA FOREST AND ITS VICINITY, MONARAGALA DISTRICT, SRI LANKA. Taprobanica 3 (02): 69-76
  • Kelaart, EDWARD FRED 1854. Catalogue of reptiles collected in Ceylon. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) 13: 137-140 - get paper here
  • Kiat, C.E. 2007. Feral Iguana attacks Varanus salvator at sungei Buloh Wetland reserve. Biawak 1 (1): 35-36 - get paper here
  • Koch, A. & Böhme, W. 2005. Die Herpetofauna Sulawesis unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gattung Varanus: phylogeographische Beziehungen zu angrenzenden Gebieten - das Projekt stellt sich vor. Elaphe 13 (4): 43-46
  • Koch, A., Auliya, M; Schmitz, A.; Kuch, U. & Böhme, W. 2007. Morphological studies on the systematics of south east Asian water monitors (Varanus salvator Complex): nominotypic populations and taxonomic overview. Mertensiella 16:109-180
  • Koch, André 2010. Bestialische Behandlung indonesischer Großreptilien für westliche Luxusprodukte. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (86): 3-6 - get paper here
  • Koch, André and Wolfgang Böhme 2010. Heading East: a New Subspecies of Varanus salvator from Obi Island, Maluku Province, Indonesia, with a Discussion about the Easternmost Natural Occurrence of Southeast Asian Water Monitor Lizards. Russ. J. Herpetol. 17 (4): 299-309 - get paper here
  • Koch, André, Evy A. Arida and Wolfgang Böhme 2007. Zwischenbericht über die Herpetofauna Sulawesis unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gattung Varanus: phylogeographische Beziehungen zu angrenzenden Gebieten. Elaphe 15 (3):42-52
  • Koch, André; Thomas Ziegler, Wolfgang Böhme, and Mark Auliya 2013. Pressing Problems: Distribution, Threats, and Conservation Status of the Monitor Lizards (Varanidae: Varanus spp.) of Southeast Asia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Herp. Cons. Biol. 8 (Monograph 3): 1 − 62. - get paper here
  • KOCH,A. and G. ACCIAIOLI 2007. The Monitor Twins: A Bugis and Makassarese Tradition from SW Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biawak 1 (2): 77-82 - get paper here
  • Kopstein, F. 1938. Ein Beitrag zur Eierkunde und zur Fortpflanzung der Malaiischen Reptilien. Bull. Raffl. Mus. No 14: 81-167
  • Krysko, K.K.; Enge, K.M.; Donlan, E.M.; Golden, E.Z.; Burgess, J.P. & Larson, K.W. 2009. THE NON-MARINE HERPETOFAUNA OF KEY BISCAYNE, FLORIDA. Herp. Cons. Biol. 5 (1):132-142 - get paper here
  • Kuhl,H. 1820. Beiträge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie. Hermannsche Buchhandlung, Frankfurt, 152 pp.
  • Lalremsanga, H.T., L. Khawlhring & Lalrotluanga 2010. Three additional lizard (Squamata: Sauria) records for Mizoram, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(2): 718-720
  • Lantermann, W. 2004. Bindenwarane (Varanus salvator) auf Sri Lanka. Elaphe 12 (2): 72-74
  • Laurenti, J. N. 1768. Specimen medicum, exhibens synopsin reptilium emendatam cum experimentis circa venena et antidota reptilium austracorum, quod authoritate et consensu. Vienna, Joan. Thomae, 217 pp.
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Lesson, R.P. 1834. Reptiles. pp. 291-336, pls. 1-7. In: I.G.S. Bélanger (ed.), Voyage aux Indes-Orientales, par le Nord de l'Europe, les Provinces du Caucase, la Géorgie, l'Armenie, et la Perse, . . . pendant les années 1825-29. Zoologie. A. Bertrand, Paris. xxxix + 535 p.
  • Lim, K.K.P. & Ng, H.H. 1999. The terrestrial herpetofauna of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bull. Zool., Suppl. No. 6: 131-155
  • Mahony, Stephen; Md. Kamrul Hasan, Md. Mofizul Kabir, Mushfiq Ahmed and Md. Kamal Hossain. 2009. A catalogue of amphibians and reptiles in the collection of Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Hamadryad 34 (1): 80 – 94
  • Malkmus, R.; Manthey, U.; Vogel, G. Hoffmann, P. & Kosuch, J. 2002. Amphibians and reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). A.R.G. Ganther Verlag, Rugell, 404 pp.
  • Manthey, U. 1981. Die Echsen des Ceylonischen Regenwaldes und seiner Randgebiete. Sauria 3 (2): 25-35 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • Martin, W. 1839. [Remarks on two species of saurian reptiles]. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1838: 68-70 - get paper here
  • McCurry MR, Mahony M, Clausen PD, Quayle MR, Walmsley CW, Jessop TS, et al. 2015. The Relationship between Cranial Structure, Biomechanical Performance and Ecological Diversity in Varanoid Lizards. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0130625. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130625 - get paper here
  • MENDYK, ROBERT W. 2011. Notes on the Malaysian “Black Dragon Biawak 5 (3): 41-43
  • Mertens, R. 1876. Preuss. Exped. Ostas. Zool. 1: 196
  • Mertens, R. 1930. Die Amphibien und Reptilien der Inseln Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa und Flores. Senck. Naturf. Gesell., Frankfurt am Main, Abhandl. 42(3): 117-344.
  • Mertens, R. 1937. Senckenbergiana, 19: 178
  • Mertens, R. 1942. Die Familie der Warane (Varanidae), 3. Teil: Taxonomie. Abh. Senckenb. naturf. Ges., 466: 235-391
  • Mertens, R. 1959. Liste der Warane Asiens und der indo-australischen Inselwelt mit systematischen Bemerkungen. Senckenbergiana biologica 40: 221-240
  • Murthy, T.S.N. 2010. The reptile fauna of India. B.R. Publishing, New Delhi, 332 pp.
  • Ng, M. & Mendyk, R.W. 2012. Predation of an adult Malaysian water Monitor Varanus salvator macromaculatus by an Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus Biawak 6 (1): 34 - get paper here
  • Nutaphand, W. 1987. Mangkorn Dam black monitor. J. Thai Zool. Center, 2 (15): 51
  • Onn, C.K.; Griserm, L.L.; Wood, P.L.; Grismer, J.L. & Ahmad, N. 2009. Preliminary Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Pulau Besar, Melaka, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 20(1): 81–87
  • Onn, Chan Kin; J. van Rooijen, L. Lee Grismer, Daicus Belabut,, Mohd. Abdul Muin Md. Akil, Hamidi Jamaludin, Rick Gregory, and Norhayati Ahmad 2010. FIRST REPORT ON THE HERPETOFAUNA OF PULAU PANGKOR, PERAK, MALAYSIA. Russ. J. Herpetol. 17 (2): 139 – 146 - get paper here
  • ONN, CHAN KIN; L. LEE. GRISMER, DIONYSIUS S. SHARMA, DAICUS BELABUT, and NORHAYATI AHMA 2009. New herpetofaunal records for Perlis State Park and adjacent areas. Malayan Nature Journal 61(4): 255 - 262
  • Ott, T. 1997. Nachzuchtergebnisse von Varanus salvator. Elaphe 5 (4): 6-11
  • Pandav, Bivash 1993. A preliminary survey of the water monitor (Varanus salvator) in Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary, Orissa. Hamadryad 18: 49-51 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; David, P.; Chimsunchart, C. & Thirakhupt, K. 2003. Reptiles of Phetchaburi Province, Western Thailand: a list of species, with natural history notes, and a discussion on the biogeography at the Isthmus of Kra. Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 3 (1): 23-53 - get paper here
  • Pauwels,O.S.G. et al. 2000. Herpetological investigations in Phang-Nga Province, southern Peninsular Thailand, with a list of reptile species and notes on their biology. Dumerilia 4 (2): 123-154 - get paper here
  • Pawlowski, S. & Krämer, C. 2008. In den Habitaten des Bindenwarans, Varanus salvator salvator (LAURENTI 1768) auf Sri Lanka. Elaphe 16 (4): 53-57
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1872. Über einige von Hrn. Dr. A. B. Meyer bei Gorontalo und Auf den Togian-Inseln gesammelte Amphibien. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1872 (Juli): 581-585 - get paper here
  • Pianka, E. R. and D. R. King, eds. 2004. Varanoid Lizards of the World. Indiana University Press, 599 pp - get paper here
  • Pianka, Eric R. 2012. Can humans share spaceship earth? Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 6 (1): 1-24 - get paper here
  • QUAH, EVAN S.H.; SHAHRULANUAR, M.S., GRISMER, L.L., MOHD ABDUL MUIN, M.A.; CHAN, K.O. and GRISMER, J.L. 2011. Preliminary Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Jerejak Island, Penang, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 63(3): 595-600
  • Rese, R. 1986. Der Kommentkampf bei Varanus salvator. Sauria 8 (2): 27-29 - get paper here
  • Rese, R. 1986. Varanus salvator cumingi MARTIN, 1838. Sauria 8 (3): 28-28 - get paper here
  • Rese, R. 1988. Beitrag zur Lebenserwartung von Grosswaranen in Gefangenschaft. Sauria 10 (1): 25-26 - get paper here
  • Reyes, M.A.P. 2008. The Monitor Lizards of Camiguin Island, Northern Philippines. Biawak 2 (1): 28-36 - get paper here
  • Romer, J.D. 1963. Occurrence of the Common Water Monitor, Varanus salvator (Laurenti), in Hong Kong. Memoirs of the Hong Kong Natural History Society (8): 12
  • SACHA, M. 2015. Herpetoreisen in Thailand: Erste Eindrücke aus Krabi Sauria 37 (3): 43-55 - get paper here
  • Sang, Nguyen Van; Ho Thu Cuc, Nguyen, Quang Truong 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Smith,M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Stanner, Michael. 2012. Varanus salvator swallowing a catfish — another facet of the life-dinner principle?. Hamadryad 36 (1): 38-41
  • Suzuki, Dai; Kengo Fuse, Mitsuhiro Aizu, Satoshi Yoshizawa, Wataru Tanaka, Kunio Araya, and Bounthob Praxaysombath 2015. Reptile Diversity in Food Markets in Laos. Current Herpetology 34 (2): 112-119 - get paper here
  • Taylor, E.H. 1953. A review of the lizards of Ceylon. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 35 (12): 1525-1585 - get paper here
  • Taylor, E.H. 1963. The lizards of Thailand. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 44: 687-1077. - get paper here
  • Teo, R.C.H. & Rajathurai, S. 1997. Mammals, reptiles and amphibians in the Nature Reserves of Singapore - diversity, abundance and distribution. Proc. Nature Reserves Survey Seminar. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 49: 353-425
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
  • Uyeda, L. & Iskandar, E. 2014. Juvenile Varanus salvator Predation on a Common Skink (Sphenomorphus sp.) Biawak 8 (2): 64 - get paper here
  • Uyeda, L. et al. 2013. Nocturnal activity of Varanus salvator on Tinjil island, indonesia. Biawak 7 (1): 25 - get paper here
  • UYEDA, LINDA; ENTANG ISKANDAR, AZHARI PURBATRAPSILA, JOKO<br />PAMUNGKAS, AARON WIRSING & RANDALL KYES 2014. Water Monitor Lizard (Varanus salvator) Satay: A Treatment for Skin Ailments in Muarabinuangeun and Cisiih, Indonesia Biawak 8 (1): 35 - get paper here
  • Venugopal, P.D. 2010. An updated and annotated list of Indian lizards (Reptilia: Sauria) based on a review of distribution records and checklists of Indian reptiles. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2 (3): 725-738. - get paper here
  • Wanger, T. C., I. Motzke, S. Saleh & D. T. Iskandar 2011. The amphibians and reptiles of the Lore Lindu National Park area, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Salamandra 47 (1): 17-29 - get paper here
  • Weijola, V.S.A. 2010. Geographical Distribution and Habitat Use of Monitor Lizards of the North Moluccas. Biawak 4 (1): 7-23 - get paper here
  • Welton, Luke J.; Perry L. Wood, Jamie R. Oaks, Cameron D. Siler, Rafe M. Brown 2014. Fossil-calibrated phylogeny and historical biogeography of Southeast Asian water monitors (Varanus salvator Complex). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - get paper here
  • Welton, Luke J.; SCOTT L. TRAVERS, CAMERON D. SILER, RAFE M. BROWN 2014. Integrative taxonomy and phylogeny-based species delimitation of Philippine water monitor lizards (Varanus salvator Complex) with descriptions of two new cryptic species. Zootaxa 3881 (3): 201–227 - get paper here
  • Whitaker, Rom 1981. Bangladesh - Monitors and turtles. Hamadryad 6 (3): 7-9 - get paper here
  • Wickramasinghe, L.J. MENDIS; L.D.C. BHATHIYA KEKULANDALA, P.I. KUMARA PEABOTUWAGE and D.M.S. SURANJAN KARUNARATHNA, 2010. A Remarkable Feeding Behavior and a New Distribution Record of Varanus salvator salvator (Laurenti, 1768) in Eastern Sri Lanka. Biawak 4 (3): 93-98 - get paper here
  • Wood, Perry L.; Hinrich Kaiser; Stephany<br />Looper; Timothy M. Youmans; Jesse L.<br />Grismer and L. Lee Grismer 2004. A first report on the herpetofauna of Pulau Besar, Johor, West Malaysia. Hamadryad 28 (1&2): 106-109 - get paper here
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
  • Ziegler, T. 2002. Die Amphibien und Reptilien eines Tieflandfeuchtwald-Schutzgebietes in Vietnam. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 342 pp. - get paper here
  • Ziegler, Thomas & Böhme, Wolfgang 1996. Zur Hemiclitoris der squamaten Reptilien: Auswirkungen auf einige Methoden der Geschlechtsunterscheidung. Herpetofauna 18 (101): 11-19 - get paper here
  • Ziegler, Thomas; Böhme, Wolfgang 1997. Genitalstrukturen und Paarungsbiologie bei squamaten Reptilien, speziell den Platynota, mit Bemerkungen zur Systematik. Mertensiella 8: 1-207
  • Ziesmann, S.; Klaas, P.& Janzen, P. 2007. Von Skinken und anderen Echsen [Sri Lankas]. Draco 7 (30): 18-23 - get paper here
  • Zug, George R. and Hinrich Kaiser 2014. A new species of four-toed skink (Squamata: Scincidae: Carlia peronii species group) from Pulau Sukur, Indonesia, and biogeographic notes on the herpetofauna of Flores and Komodo. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 126 (4): 379-392, doi: 10.2988/0006-324X-126.4.379 - get paper here
 
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:


Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator