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Vermicella annulata (GRAY, 1841)

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Higher TaxaElapidae (Hydrophiinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Eastern Bandy-bandy, Bandy Bandy
G: Bandy-Bandy 
SynonymCalamaria annulata GRAY 1841: 443
Elaps occipitalis DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1220
Vermicella lunulata KREFFT 1869: 79
Furina occipitalis BOULENGER 1896
Rhynchelaps latizonatus DE VIS 1905: 49
Vermicella annulata — SIMPSON 1973
Vermicella annulata — COGGER 1983: 239
Vermicella annulata — COGGER 2000: 696
Vermicella annulata — MATTISON 2007: 262
Vermicella annulata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 785 
DistributionAustralia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria)

Type locality: Australia  
TypesSyntype: BMNH 1946.1.19.21, Swan River [in error], collector unknown, identified as holotype by Cogger et al. (1983). Description also based on an illustration by White (1790).
Holotype: MNHP 3936, from Rio de Janeiro (errore) and Australia [Elaps occipitalis].
Holotype: AM 6684, from upper Burdekin River district, Qld. [Vermicella lunulata].
Holotype: QM J192, from Qld., Herberton, vide Covacevich (1971) [Rhynchelaps latizonatus]. 
CommentSynonymy after COGGER 1983.


Type species: Calamaria annulata GRAY 1841: 443 is the type species of the genus Vermicella GRAY in GÜNTHER 1858.

Behavior: Vermicella are generally burrowing, nocturnal hunters.

Diet: blind snakes of the genus Anilios 
EtymologyNamed after the diminutive form (“annul-”) of Latin “anus” = ring. 
  • Bustard, H.R. 1969. Defensive Display Behavior in the Bandy-Bandy, Vermicella annulata (Serpentes: Elapidae) Herpetologica 25 (4): 319-320. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Couper P J; Covacevich J. A. 1996. A Bandy Bandy with a difference. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 39 (2): 242 - get paper here
  • Covacevich, J. 1971. Amphibian and reptile type specimens in the Queensland Museum. [type catalogue] Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 16: 49-68 - get paper here
  • de Vis, Charles Walter de 1905. A new genus of lizard. On Typhlops torresianus. Ann. Queensland Museum (Brisbane) 6: 48 - get paper here
  • de Vis, Charles Walter de 1905. A new genus of lizard. Ann. Queensland Museum (Brisbane) 6: 46-52
  • DEREZ, CHANTELLE M.; KEVIN ARBUCKLE, ZHIQIANG RUAN, BING XIE, YU HUANG, LAUREN DIBBEN, QIONG SHI, FREEK J. VONK, BRYAN G. FRY 2018. A new species of bandy-bandy (Vermicella: Serpentes: Elapidae) from the Weipa region, Cape York, Australia. Zootaxa 4446 (1): 001–012 [erratum in Zootaxa 4461(4): 600] - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Gower, D.; Garrett, K. & Stafford, P. 2012. Snakes. Firefly Books, Buffalo, NY,<br />144 p..
  • Gray, J.E. 1841. A catalogue of the species of reptiles and Amphibia hitherto described as inhabiting Australia, with a description of some new species from Western Australia. Appendix E, pp. 422-449. In: G. Grey, Journals of Two Expeditions of Discovery in Northwest T. and W. Boone, London. Vol. 2: 422-449 + plates - get paper here
  • Greenlees, M.J., J.K. Webb & R. Shine 2005. Led by the blind: Bandy-Bandy Snakes Vermicella annulata (Elapidae) follow Blindsnake chemical trails Copeia 2005 (1): 184-187. - get paper here
  • Hutchinson M N 1990. The generic classification of the Australian terrestrial elapid snakes. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 29 (3): 397-405 - get paper here
  • Kay, G.M.; D. Michael; M. Crane; S. Okada; C. MacGregor; D. Florance; D. Trengove; L. McBurney; D. Blair; D.B. Lindenmayer. 2013. A list of reptiles and amphibians from Box Gum Grassy Woodlands in south-eastern Australia. Check List 9 (3):476-481 - get paper here
  • Keogh, J.S.; Smith, S.A. 1996. Taxonomy and natural history of the Australian bandy-bandy snakes (Elapidae: Vermicella) with a description of two new species. Journal of Zoology 240: 677-701 - get paper here
  • Krefft, G. 1869. The Snakes of Australia; an Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue of All the Known Species. Sydney, Govt. Printer xxv + 100 pp. - get paper here
  • Longman, H. A. 1916. Snakes and lizards from Queensland and the Northern Territory. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 5: 46-51 - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • McDowell, Samuel B. 1969. Toxicocalamus, a New Guinea genus of snakes of the family Elapidae. Journal of Zoology, London 159: 443-511 - get paper here
  • McDowell, Samuel B. 1970. On the status and relationships of the Solomon Island elapid snakes. Journal of Zoology, London 161: 145-190 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Shine, R. 1980. Reproduction, Feeding and Growth in the Australian Burrowing Snake Vermicella annulata Journal of Herpetology 14 (1): 71-77. - get paper here
  • Simpson, KNG 1973. AMPHIBIANS, REPTILES AND MAMMALS OF THE MURRAY RIVER region between Mildura and Renmark, Australia. Mem. Nat. Mus. Vict. 34: 275-279 - get paper here
  • Swan, G.; Sadlier, R.; Shea, G. 2017. A field guide to reptiles of New South Wales. Reed New Holland, 328 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
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