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Vipera ammodytes (LINNAEUS, 1758)

IUCN Red List - Vipera ammodytes - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesVipera ammodytes ammodytes LINNAEUS 1758
Vipera ammodytes meridionalis BOULENGER 1903
Vipera ammodytes montandoni BOULENGER 1904 
Common NamesE: Nose-horned Viper
G: Europäische Hornotter, Europäische Sandotter 
SynonymColuber Ammodytes LINNAEUS 1758: 216
Vipera ammodytes — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1414
Vipera aspis balcanica BURESCH & ZONKOV 1934
Vipera aspis balcanica — WELCH 1994: 119
Vipera ammodytes — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 390
Vipera (Vipera) ammodytes — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Vipera ammodytes — WALLACH et al. 2014: 772

Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (LINNAEUS 1758)
Coluber Ammodytes LINNAEUS 1758: 216
Vipera ammodytes ruffoi BRUNO 1968
Vipera ammodytes gregorwallneri SOCHUREK 1974
Vipera (Rhinaspis) ammodytes ruffoi — OBST 1983
Vipera (Rhinaspis) ammodytes ammodytes — OBST 1983
Vipera (Rhinaspis) ammodytes gregorwallneri — OBST 1984
Vipera ammodytes gregorwallneri — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Vipera ammodytes ruffoi — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Vipera ammodytes ammodytes — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Vipera ammodytes ammodytes — WELCH 1994: 119
Vipera ammodytes ammodytes — SCHWEIGER 2009

Vipera ammodytes meridionalis BOULENGER 1903
Vipera ammodytes var. meridionalis BOULENGER 1903: 186
Vipera ammodytes meridionalis — DIESENER 1979
Vipera (Rhinaspis) ammodytes meridionalis — OBST 1984
Vipera ammodytes meridionalis — MEYER 1985
Vipera ammodytes meridionalis — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Vipera ammodytes meridionalis — WELCH 1994: 119
Vipera ammodytes meridionalis — SCHWEIGER 2009

Vipera ammodytes montandoni BOULENGER 1904
Vipera ammodytes var. Montandoni BOULENGER 1904: 134
Vipera ammodytes montandoni — DIESENER 1979
Vipera (Rhinaspis) ammodytes montandoni — OBST 1983
Vipera ammodytes montandoni — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Vipera ammodytes montandoni — SCHLÜTER 2003
Vipera ammodytes montandoni — SCHWEIGER 2009 
DistributionAustria (Kärnten, Südsteiermark), N Italy, W Hungary,
Croatia (including some adriatic islands), Slovenia,
Bosnia and Hercegovina, Monte Negro, Macedonia, Serbia,
Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece (incl. Paros, Antiparos, Strongylo, Andros),
Turkey, Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria?, Lebanon?,
Croatia

balcanica: SE Bosnia, S Bulgaria

meridionalis: Albania, Greece (incl. Corfu = Corfou, Paros, Tinos), S Serbia, Romania, S Bulgaria, European Turkey (fide WELCH 1994)

montandoni: Turkey, E Bulgaria

Type locality: “Oriente” Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: ZMUU 95. 
CommentVenomous!

Taxonomy and Synonymy: Vipera ammodytes transcaucasiana is considered as species by several authors (like JOGER in prep., Nilson et al. in press), but not by others (e.g. BARAN 1998; U. Joger, pers. comm.). It is included here as valid species. Most authors don’t seem to recognize V. a. gregorwallneri and synonymize it with V. a. ammodytes (e.g. GOLAY et al. 1993). URSENBACHER et al. (2008) synonymized gregorwallneri and ruffoi with ammodytes. The validity of V. a. montandoni was questioned recently based of on morphological characters (Christov & Beshkov 1999, Tomović & Džukić 2003). Garrigues et al. (2005) found that V. a. montandoni is phylogenetically closely related to V. a. meridionalis, thus these authors proposed to regarded the former as a synonym of V. a. meridionalis. However, Tomović (2006) reconfirm the validity of V. a. montandoni, based on morphometric analysis of five mersitic and qualitative characters on 922 specimens.

Distribution data still reflecting inclusion of V. transcaucasiana. V. a. ammodytes hybridized with V. aspis atra in captivity (FAORO 1986), with V. aspis zinnikeri (OBERMAYER 1967), and with V. aspis aspis (SCHWEIZER 1941). Has been erroneously reported from S Czechoslovakia (but doesn’t occur there fide Hegner, pers. comm.). Reports from Hungary may be based on historical reports when parts of Romania belonged to Hungary (and may therefore represent records from Romania). 
References
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