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Vipera berus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesVipera berus berus (LINNAEUS 1758)
Vipera berus bosniensis (BOETTGER, 1889)
Vipera berus nikolskii (VEDMEDERYA, GRUBANT & RUDAJEWA 1986)
Vipera berus sachalinensis ZAREVSKY 1917 
Common NamesE: Adder, Northern Viper
G: Kreuzotter
E: Nikolsky's Viper [nikolskii]
G: Waldsteppen-Otter [nikolskii] 
SynonymColuber Berus LINNAEUS 1758: 217
Coluber Berus — LAURENTI 1768: 97
Vipera berus — DAUDIN 1803: 89
Chersea vulgaris FLEMING 1822: 295
Berus vulgaris — SWAINSON 1839: 362
Pelias berus — GÜNTHER 1859: 226
Pelias berus — SCHUBERT 1886
Vipera berus — BOULENGER 1896: 476
Coluber berus — STEJNEGER 1907: 445
Vipera coronis aspoides REUSS 1925
Vipera aspoides annulata REUSS 1927
Vipera aspoides — REUSS 1927
Vipera berus — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Vipera berus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 397
Vipera (Pelias) berus — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Pelias berus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 541

Vipera berus berus (LINNAEUS 1758)
Coluber berus LINNAEUS 1758
Pelias berus — MERREM 1820: 148
Vipera (Pelias) berus forma punctata REUSS 1925

Vipera berus bosniensis BOETTGER 1889
Vipera berus v[ar]. bosniensis BOETTGER in MOJSISOVICS 1889 [1888]
Vipera berus pseudaspis SCHREIBER 1912
Vipera berus bosniensis — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Vipera berus bosniensis — IOANNIDIS & BOUSBOURAS 1989
Vipera berus bosniensis — SCHWEIGER 2009
Vipera berus bosniensis — KWET & TRAPP 2014
Vipera berus bosniensis — GHIELMI et al. 2016

Vipera berus nikolskii (VEDMEDERYA, GRUBANT & RUDAJEWA 1986)
Vipera nikolskii VEDMEDERYA, GRUBANT & RUDAJEWA 1986
Vipera berus var. prester — KOWATSCHEFF 1905
Vipera prester (LINNAEUS 1761) (fide KHALIKOV, pers. comm.)
Vipera nikolskii — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Vipera berus nikolskii — JOGER et al. 1997
Vipera nikolskii — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 407
Vipera berus nikolskii — MILTO & ZINENKO 2005
Vipera (Pelias) nikolskii — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Vipera berus nikolskii — VEDMEDERYA et al. 2009
Vipera berus nikolskii — ZINENKO et al. 2010
Pelias nikolskii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 544
Vipera nikolskii — BELIK 2014
Vipera berus nikolskii — FROLOVA & GAPONOV 2016

Vipera berus sachalinensis ZAREVSKY 1917
Vipera berus sachalinensis TZAREVSKY 1916
Coluber sachalinensis sachalinensis
Vipera berus sachalinensis — SHANNON 1956
Coluber sachalinensis continentalis NIKOLSKY 1926
Vipera berus sachalinensis — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Vipera berus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 399
Vipera berus sachalinensis — KUCHARZEWSKI 2011
Vipera sachalinensis — PYRON & BURBRINK 2013
Pelias sachalinensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 545
Pelias sachalinensis — ADNAGULOV 2016 
DistributionNorway, Sweden, Finland,
France, Denmark, Germany, Austria, Switzerland,
N Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Great Britain,
Poland, Czech Republic (formerly Czechoslovakia), Hungary, Romania, Belarus, Turkey,
Bulgaria, Albania, Slovakia,
Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia, Bosnia-Hercegovina,
Monte Negro, Macedonia, Serbia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania,
Russia, Ukraine, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, North Korea, NW China (N Xinjiang, Jilin)

bosniensis: Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro, N Albania, N Greece, Hungary

nikolski: Ukraine (vicinity of Kharkhov), Central and S Russia, Romania; Type locality: near the city of Kharkov, Ukraine

sachalinensis: Amur Oblast, Primorskye Kray and Khabarovsk Kray (Far East, Russia), Sakhalin = Sachalin Island (Russia), NE China, North Korea

Type locality: Uppsala, Sweden Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
Reproductionovoviviparous (listed as viviparous by Blackburn 1994). 
TypesSyntypes: NMR 5995
Holotype: MNKNU 14703.1 [nikolskii]
Holotype: ZSM (SLM) 1519 (lost), adult female, “Arnsdorf i. Sachsen” (card index), collected by T. Reuss 26.09.1924 (see Krecsák 2007) [punctata] 

Distribution including data for V. sachalinensis which has been elevated to species status. ENGELMANN et al. (1993) list Vipera berus pseudaspis SCHREIBER 1912 as separate subspecies. V. b. bosniensis most likely not in Romania (Sos 2008).

Synonymy partly after STEJNEGER 1907.

Taxonomy: Vipera berus bosniensis may represent a valid species (U. Joger in MCDIARMID et al. 1999). Vipera berus sachalinensis ZAREVSKY 1917 has been considered as valid species by some authors. JOGER et al. (2007) found that bosniensis, nikolskii, barani, sachalinensis nested within various populations of V. berus.

GenBank: V. nikolskii used to be NCBI taxon ID 110206. 
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