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Vipera kaznakovi NIKOLSKY, 1909

IUCN Red List - Vipera kaznakovi - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Caucasus Viper
G: Kaukasusotter 
SynonymVipera kaznakovi NIKOLSKY 1909: 173
Vipera berus var. ornata BASOGLU 1947
Vipera renardi
Vipera ursini kaznakowi
Coluber kaznakowi
Vipera kaznakovi — WELCH 1994: 121
Vipera (Pelias) kaznakovi — NILSON et al. 1999: 103
Vipera kaznakovi — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 405
Vipera kasnakovi [sic] — GARRIGUES et al. 2005
Vipera (Pelias) kaznakovi — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006 
DistributionS Russia, W Georgia, NE Turkey. Elevation up to 3000 m.

Type locality: Tsebel’da, Sukhumi district, Georgia Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntypes (5), according to Nikolsky (1916:246) as seen in the English translation.
Lectotype: ZMT 4408, designated by Orlov and Tuniyev, 1990: 6. 
CommentVenomous! Synonymy partly after KHALIKOV & ANANJEVA (pers. comm.)

Reproduction: ovoviviparous. 
References
  • Afsar, Murat and Birgül Afsar 2009. A New Locality for Vipera (Pelias) kaznakovi Nikolsky, 1909 (Reptilia, Viperidae) in the North-Eastern Anatolia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 16 (2): 155-158 - get paper here
  • Arıkan, H., Göçmen, B., Kumlutaş, Y., Alpagut-Keskin, N., Ilgaz, Ç & Yıldız, M.Z. 2008. Electrophoretic characterisation of the venom samples obtained from various Anatolian snakes (Serpentes: Colubridae, Viperidae, Elapidae). North-Western Journal of Zoology 4 (1): 16-28 - get paper here
  • Baran, I.; Tok, C.V.; Olgun, K.; Iret, F. & Avci, Z. 2005. On Viperid (Serpentes: Sauria) Specimens Collected from Northeastern Anatolia. Turkish Journal of Zoology 29: 225-228 - get paper here
  • Basoglu,M. 1947. Rev. Facult. Sci. Univ. Istanbul (B) 12: 182-190
  • Billing H; Nilson G; Sattler U 1990. Vipera pontica sp. n., a new viper species in the kaznakovi group (Reptilia, Viperidae) from northeastern Turkey and adjacent Transcaucasia. Zoologica Scripta 19 (2): 227-231
  • Billing, H. 1983. Polymorphismus bei Vipera berus seoanei. Herpetofauna 5 (24): 31-33 - get paper here
  • Böhme W; Joger U 1984. Eine neue Art des Vipera berus-Komplexes aus der Turkei. Amphibia-Reptilia 4 (2-4) 1983: 265-271 - get paper here
  • Garrigues, Thomas; Catherine Dauga; Elisabeth Ferquel; Valérie Choumet and Anna-Bella Failloux 2005. Molecular phylogeny of Vipera Laurenti, 1768 and the related genera Macrovipera (Reuss, 1927) and Daboia (Gray, 1842), with comments about neurotoxic Vipera aspis aspis populations . Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution <br />Volume 35 (1): 35-47 - get paper here
  • Joger, U.; Fritz, U.; Guicking, D.; Kalyabina-Hauf, S.; Nagy, Z.T. & Wink, M. 2007. Phylogeography of western Palaearctic reptiles – Spatial and temporal speciation patterns. Zoologischer Anzeiger 246: 293–313 - get paper here
  • Kramer, E. 1961. Variation, Sexualdimorphismus, Wachstum und Taxonomie von Vipera ursinii (Bonaparte, 1835) und Vipera kaznakovi Nikolskij, 1909. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 68 (4): 627-725 - get paper here
  • Mallow, D. Ludwig, D. & Nilson, G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 410 pp. [review in HR 35: 200, Reptilia 35: 74]
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mertens, R. 1952. Türkiye amfibi ve reptilleri hakkinda. Amphibien und Reptilien aus der Türkei. Rev. Istanbul Üniversitesi fen Fakültesi Mecmuasi, 17:41-75.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. 1909. Tiflis Mitt. Kaukas. Mus. 4: 173-174
  • Nilson, G., Andren, C., & Flärdh, B. 1988. Die Vipern der Türkei. Salamandra 24 (4): 215-247.
  • Nilson,G.; TUNIYEV,B.; ANDRÉN,C. & ORLOV,N. 1999. Vipers of Caucasus: Taxonomic considerations. Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 103-106
  • Olivier, R. 2008. Kleine gifslangengalerij. Lacerta 66 (1-3): 47-57 - get paper here
  • Orlov,N.L. & B.S. Tuniyev. 1990. Three Species in the Vipera kaznakowi Complex (Eurosiberian Group) in the Caucasus: Their Present Distribution, Possile Genesis, and Phylogeny. Asiatic Herpetological Research 3: 1-36. - get paper here
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
  • Schulze-Niehoff, Peter 2008. Terrarienhaltung, Vermehrung und Aufzucht der Kaukasusotter, Vipera kaznakovi Nikolskij, 1909. Ophidia 2 (2): 11-18 - get paper here
  • Shine, Richard;Madsen, Thomas 1994. Sexual dichromatism in snakes of the genus Vipera: A review and a new evolutionary hypothesis Journal of Herpetology 28 (1): 114-117 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Alberto Venchi, Giuseppe M. Carpaneto, Marco A. Bologna 2000. The Reptiles of Anatolia: a Checklist and Zoogeographical analysis. Biogeographia, 21-2000: 441-554.
  • TUNIYEV, B. S. & S. V. OSTROVSKIKH 2001. Two new species of vipers of "kaznakovi" complex (Ophidia, Viperidae) from western Caucasus. Russ. J. Herpetol. 8 (2): 117-126 - get paper here
  • Tuniyev, B.S. 1990. On the Independence of the Colchis Center of Amphibian and Reptile Speciation. Asiatic Herpetological Research 3: 67-84 - get paper here
  • Vedmederja V J; Orlov N L; Tuniyev B S 1986. On taxonomy of three viper species of the Vipera kaznakowi complex [in Russian]. TRUDY ZOOLOGICHESKOGO INSTITUTA AKADEMII NAUK SSSR 157: 55-61 - get paper here
  • Vedmederya, Valeriy; Oleksandr Zinenko, and Andrei Barabanov 2009. An Annotated Type Catalogue of Amphibians and Reptiles in the Museum of Nature at V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (Kharkiv, Ukraine). Russian Journal of Herpetology 16 (3): 203-212 - get paper here
  • Venchi, Alberto and Roberto Sindaco 2006. Annotated checklist of the reptiles of the Mediterranean countries, with keys to species identification. Part 2 -Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, XCVIII: 259-364
 
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