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Vipera kaznakovi NIKOLSKY, 1909

IUCN Red List - Vipera kaznakovi - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Caucasus Viper
G: Kaukasusotter 
SynonymVipera kaznakovi NIKOLSKY 1909: 174
Vipera berus var. ornata BASOGLU 1947
Vipera renardi
Vipera ursini kaznakowi
Coluber kaznakowi
Vipera kaznakovi — WELCH 1994: 121
Vipera (Pelias) kaznakovi — NILSON et al. 1999: 103
Vipera kaznakovi — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 405
Vipera kasnakovi [sic] — GARRIGUES et al. 2005
Vipera (Pelias) kaznakovi — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Pelias kaznakovi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 544
Pelias kaznakovi — TUNIYEV 2016 
DistributionS Russia, W Republic of Georgia, NE Turkey. Elevation up to 3000 m.

Type locality: Tsebel’da, Sukhumi district, Republic of Georgia Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionovoviviparous. 
TypesLectotype: ZMT 4408, designated by Orlov and Tuniyev, 1990: 6.
Syntypes (5), according to Nikolsky (1916:246) as seen in the English translation. 
CommentVenomous! Synonymy partly after KHALIKOV & ANANJEVA (pers. comm.)

History: Nikolsky published a preliminary description that is dated 1908 (p. 174) but it’s in volume IV of 1909. He then published a “final” description in 1910 which is more detailed (in volume V, pp. 81 ff; M. Schweiger, pers. comm., 8 June 2017). 
References
  • Afsar, Murat and Birgül Afsar 2009. A New Locality for Vipera (Pelias) kaznakovi Nikolsky, 1909 (Reptilia, Viperidae) in the North-Eastern Anatolia. Russ. J. Herpetol. 16 (2): 155-158 - get paper here
  • Arıkan, H., Göçmen, B., Kumlutaş, Y., Alpagut-Keskin, N., Ilgaz, Ç & Yıldız, M.Z. 2008. Electrophoretic characterisation of the venom samples obtained from various Anatolian snakes (Serpentes: Colubridae, Viperidae, Elapidae). North-Western Journal of Zoology 4 (1): 16-28 - get paper here
  • Baran, I.; Tok, C.V.; Olgun, K.; Iret, F. & Avci, Z. 2005. On Viperid (Serpentes: Sauria) Specimens Collected from Northeastern Anatolia. Turkish Journal of Zoology 29: 225-228 - get paper here
  • Basoglu, M. 1947. On some varieties of Vipera berus from the extreme North-eastern Anatolia. Rev. Facult. Sci. Univ. Istanbul (B) 12: 182-190
  • Billing H; Nilson G; Sattler U 1990. Vipera pontica sp. n., a new viper species in the kaznakovi group (Reptilia, Viperidae) from northeastern Turkey and adjacent Transcaucasia. Zoologica Scripta 19 (2): 227-231
  • Billing, H. 1983. Polymorphismus bei Vipera berus seoanei. Herpetofauna 5 (24): 31-33 - get paper here
  • Böhme W; Joger U 1984. Eine neue Art des Vipera berus-Komplexes aus der Turkei. Amphibia-Reptilia 4 (2-4) 1983: 265-271 - get paper here
  • Garrigues, Thomas; Catherine Dauga; Elisabeth Ferquel; Valérie Choumet and Anna-Bella Failloux 2005. Molecular phylogeny of Vipera Laurenti, 1768 and the related genera Macrovipera (Reuss, 1927) and Daboia (Gray, 1842), with comments about neurotoxic Vipera aspis aspis populations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution <br />Volume 35 (1): 35-47 - get paper here
  • Ghielmi, S., Menegon, M., Marsden, S. J., Laddaga, L. and Ursenbacher, S. 2016. A new vertebrate for Europe: the discovery of a range-restricted relict viper in the western Italian Alps. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 54: 161–173.doi: 10.1111/jzs.12138 - get paper here
  • Gül, Serkan; Yusuf Kumlutaş, Çetin Ilgaz 2016. Predicted Distribution Patterns of Pelias kaznakovi (Nikolsky, 1909) in the Caucasus Hotspot with a New Locality Record from Turkey. Russ. J. Herpetol. 23 (3): 224-230 - get paper here
  • Joger, U.; Fritz, U.; Guicking, D.; Kalyabina-Hauf, S.; Nagy, Z.T. & Wink, M. 2007. Phylogeography of western Palaearctic reptiles – Spatial and temporal speciation patterns. Zoologischer Anzeiger 246: 293–313 - get paper here
  • Kramer, E. 1961. Variation, Sexualdimorphismus, Wachstum und Taxonomie von Vipera ursinii (Bonaparte, 1835) und Vipera kaznakovi Nikolskij, 1909. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 68 (4): 627-725 - get paper here
  • Mallow, D. Ludwig, D. & Nilson, G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 410 pp. [review in HR 35: 200, Reptilia 35: 74]
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mebert, Konrad; Bayram Göçmen, Naşİt İğcİ, Mehmet Anil Oğuz, Mert Kariş & Sylvain Ursenbacher 2015. New records and search for contact zones among parapatric vipers in the genus Vipera (barani, kaznakovi, darevskii, eriwanensis), Montivipera (wagneri, raddei), and Macrovipera (lebetina) in northeastern Anatolia Herpetological Bulletin (133) - get paper here
  • Mebert, Konrad; Nasit Igci, Bayram Göçmen & Sylvain Ursenbacher 2014. Vipern der Nordost-Türkei: Genfluss und Umweltfaktoren zwischen den Taxa des Vipera-barani-kaznakovi-darevskii-Komplexes. Terraria-Elaphe 2014 (5): 58-67 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1952. Türkiye amfibi ve reptilleri hakkinda. Amphibien und Reptilien aus der Türkei. Rev. Istanbul Üniversitesi fen Fakültesi Mecmuasi, 17:41-75.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. 1909. Eine neue Vipern-Art aus dem Kaukasus: Vipera kaznakovi sp. nov. Tiflis Mitt. Kaukas. Mus. 4: 174
  • Nilson, G., Andren, C., & Flärdh, B. 1988. Die Vipern der Türkei. Salamandra 24 (4): 215-247 - get paper here
  • Nilson,G.; TUNIYEV,B.; ANDRÉN,C. & ORLOV,N. 1999. Vipers of Caucasus: Taxonomic considerations. Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 103-106
  • Olivier, R. 2008. Kleine gifslangengalerij. Lacerta 66 (1-3): 47-57 - get paper here
  • Orlov,N.L. & B.S. Tuniyev. 1990. Three Species in the Vipera kaznakowi Complex (Eurosiberian Group) in the Caucasus: Their Present Distribution, Possile Genesis, and Phylogeny. Asiatic Herpetological Research 3: 1-36. - get paper here
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
  • Schulze Niehoff, Peter 2008. Terrarienhaltung, Vermehrung und Aufzucht der Kaukasusotter, Vipera kaznakovi Nikolskij, 1909. Ophidia 2 (2): 11-18 - get paper here
  • Shine, Richard;Madsen, Thomas 1994. Sexual dichromatism in snakes of the genus Vipera: A review and a new evolutionary hypothesis. Journal of Herpetology 28 (1): 114-117 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Alberto Venchi, Giuseppe M. Carpaneto, Marco A. Bologna 2000. The Reptiles of Anatolia: a Checklist and Zoogeographical analysis. Biogeographia, 21-2000: 441-554.
  • Smedt, Johan De 2002. Care and breeding Vipera kaznakovi. Litteratura Serpentium 22 (2): 74-78 - get paper here
  • Tuniyev B.S. 2016. Rare species of shield-head vipers in the Caucasus. Nature Conservation Research 1 (3): 11–25 - get paper here
  • Tuniyev B.S., Tuniyev S.B., Avcı A., Ilgaz Ç. 2014. Herpetological studies in Eastern and North-Eastern Turkey. Current Studies in Herpetology 14 (1/2): 44–53. Резюме - get paper here
  • TUNIYEV, B. S. & S. V. OSTROVSKIKH 2001. Two new species of vipers of "kaznakovi" complex (Ophidia, Viperidae) from western Caucasus. Russ. J. Herpetol. 8 (2): 117-126 - get paper here
  • Tuniyev, B.S. 1990. On the Independence of the Colchis Center of Amphibian and Reptile Speciation. Asiatic Herpetological Research 3: 67-84 - get paper here
  • Vedmederja V J; Orlov N L; Tuniyev B S 1986. On taxonomy of three viper species of the Vipera kaznakowi complex [in Russian]. TRUDY ZOOLOGICHESKOGO INSTITUTA AKADEMII NAUK SSSR 157: 55-61 - get paper here
  • Vedmederya, Valeriy; Oleksandr Zinenko, and Andrei Barabanov 2009. An Annotated Type Catalogue of Amphibians and Reptiles in the Museum of Nature at V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (Kharkiv, Ukraine). Russ. J. Herpetol. 16 (3): 203-212 - get paper here
  • Venchi, Alberto and Roberto Sindaco 2006. Annotated checklist of the reptiles of the Mediterranean countries, with keys to species identification. Part 2 -Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, XCVIII: 259-364
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Weima, André 2009. Pictures: Vipera kaznakovi and Vipera lebetina schweizeri. Litteratura Serpentium 29 (3): 129 - get paper here
 
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