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Vipera ursinii (BONAPARTE, 1835)

IUCN Red List - Vipera ursinii - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesVipera ursinii graeca NILSON & ANDRÉN 1988
Vipera ursinii macrops (MÉHELY, 1911)
Vipera ursinii moldavica NILSON, ANDRÉN & JOGER 1993
Vipera ursinii rakosiensis MÉHELY, 1893: 190
Vipera ursinii ursinii (BONAPARTE, 1835) 
Common NamesE: Meadow Viper, Orsinis Viper
G: Wiesenotter; rakosiensis: Ungarische Wiesenotter 
SynonymPelias Ursinii BONAPARTE 1835 (under Pelias chersea)
Vipera ursinii — BOULENGER 1893: 596
Acridophaga uralensis REUSS 1925
Vipera ursinii wettsteini KNÖPFLER & SOCHUREK, 1955
Vipera ursinii — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Vipera ursinii — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 409
Vipera (Pelias) ursinii — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Vipera (Acridophaga) ursinii — SOS 2008

Vipera ursinii graeca NILSON & ANDRÉN 1988
Vipera macrops graeca — WELCH 1994: 123
Vipera ursinii graeca — SCHWEIGER 2009
Vipera ursinii graeca — KUCHARZEWSKI 2011
Vipera graeca — FERCHAUD et al. 2012

Vipera ursinii macrops MÉHELY 1911
Vipera macrops MÉHELY 1911: 203
Vipera macrops — VEITH 1991
Vipera macrops macrops — WELCH 1994: 123
Vipera ursinii macrops — SCHWEIGER 2009
Vipera ursinii macrops — TRAPP 2011
Vipera ursinii macrops — TRAPP 2014

Vipera ursinii moldavica NILSON, ANDRÉN & JOGER 1993
Vipera ursinii moldavica — SCHWEIGER 2009
Vipera ursinii moldavica — TRAPP 2014

Vipera ursinii rakosiensis MÉHELY 1893
Vipera berus rakosiensis MÉHELY 1893: 190
Vipera ursinii rakosiensis — SCHWEIGER 2009 
DistributionSE France, E Austria, Italy, Croatia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Monte Negro, Macedonia, Serbia, N Albania, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Moldova.

graeca: Albania, Greece

macrops: Balkan, incl. Montenegro; Type locality: Herzegowina, Konto (Lectotype: NMW).

moldavica: Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova

rakosiensis: E Austria, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, S Romania, N Bulgaria

ursinii: C Italy; Type locality: “... monti dell’Abruzzo prossimi alla provincia d’Ascoli...” (mountains of Abruzzi, near Ascoli province, Italy).

wettsteini: SE France

Type locality: Italy Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesLectotype: ANSP 6915 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: Vipera ursinii ebneri KNÖPFLER & SOCHUREK, 1955 is now considered a synonym of V. eriwanensis. Vipera ursinii renardi (CHRISTOPH, 1861) is now considered as a valid species. Synonymy partly after KHALIKOV & ANANJEVA (pers. comm.).

Subspecies: Golay et al. (1993) recognized 4 subspecies: V. u. ursinii, rakosiensis, eriwanensis, and renardi, of which the latter 2 have been raised to species status. Vipera ursinii anatolica EISELT & BARAN 1970 is also treated as a full species now. FERCHAUD et al. 2012 suggested to treat graeca as valid species and their phylogenetic analysis supports that. However, the geographic sampling seems to be rather sparse and their analysis is only based on Cytb (3 samples) and ND4 (1 sample) sequences, hence we leave graeca as subspecies until more data becomes available.

Distribution: not in Ukraine fide Viktor Gasso, pers. comm. 12 June 2011. Joger and Stümpel (2005) recently recognized V. ursinii as being restricted to Europe, ranging as isolated populations from France in the west to Moldova in the east. Records of V. ursinii from the following countries represent V. renardi: NW Iran, Armenia, Russia, Moldova, Georgia, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, eastward through Kazakhstan to Mt. Altai, south to Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, China (W Xinjiang). Not in Kazakhstan fide Dujsebayeva (2010 and pers. comm., 6 Feb 2012). 
References
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