|Distribution||USA (Texas, E Oklahoma, Louisiana, Indiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, N Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri, SE Iowa, E Kansas, S Ohio, Maryland, District of Columbia, Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania)|
elegans: Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas; Type locality: Heavily timbered regions of southern Illinois.
pulchra: USA (Unglaciated mountains and high plateaus of W Pennsylvania and adj. Maryland into NE West Virginia).
valeriae: New Jersey to South Carolina, west to Ohio and Tennessee; Type locality: Kent County, Maryland.
- Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.
NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
|Comment||Subspecies: Virginia valeriae pulchra has been elevated to species status. Collins (1991), in a peer-reviewed article, recommended that this previously defined, diagnosed, and allopatric taxon be recognized as a distinct species, a more conservative taxonomy than that in previous use. Collins (1997) presented this proposed change to his snake systematist group, composed of John E. Cadle, Brian I. Crother, Harry W. Greene, L. Lee Grismer, James A. MacMahon, James R. McCranie, and Samuel S. Sweet, and the majority of those individuals responding recommended that pulchra be so recognized. Collins (1997) followed that recommendation. [from: http://eagle.cc.ukans.edu/~cnaar/serpentes.html]. However, other others haven’t accepted species status yet.|
Etymology (pulchra): Named after Latin “pulchra” = beautiful, handsome, fine, fair.
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- Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp.
- Campbell, H. W. 1962. An extension of the range of Haldea valeriae in Florida. Copeia 1962 (2): 438-439 - get paper here
- Christiansen, James L. 1973. The distribution and variation of the western earth snake, Virginia valeriae elegans (Kennicott) in Iowa Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 80:
- Collins J T 1991. Viewpoint: a new taxonomic arrangement for some North American amphibians and reptiles Herpetological Review 22 (2): 42-43 - get paper here
- Collins J T 1997. Standard Common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles, 2nd edition. Herpetological Circular 25: 1-40
- Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2009. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 2nd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
- Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2010. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 3rd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
- Conant, Roger 1936. Virginia valeriae valeriae in Pennsylvania Herpetologica 1 (1): - get paper here
- Conant, Roger 1938. The Reptiles of Ohio American Midland Naturalist 20 (1): 1-200 - get paper here
- Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
- Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. SSAR Herpetological Circular 39:1-92
- Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
- Dorcas, M.E. 2005. A Guide to the Snakes of North Carolina Ophidian Publishers, 42 pp. - get paper here
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- Dundee, H.A., & Rossman, D.A. 1989. The amphibians and reptiles of Louisiana Louisiana St. Univ. Press, Baton Rouge 300 pp.
- Edmond, Brian S. 1993. Virginia valeriae (Smooth Earth Snake). USA: Missouri Herpetological Review 24 (2): 69 - get paper here
- Enge, Kevin M. 2009. Venomous and non-venomous snakes of Florida. Publication of the Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. 16 pp.
- Ernst, C.H., & Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of eastern North America George Mason Univ. Press, Fairfax, VA 282 pp.
- Green, N.B., & Pauley, T.K. 1987. Amphibians and reptiles in West Virginia Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, 241 pp.
- Hay, W. P. 1902. A list of the batrachians and reptiles of the District of Columbia and vicinity. Proc. Biol. Soc, Washington 15: 121-145 - get paper here
- Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 12. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
- Jensen, John B.; Bailey, Mark A. 1995. Virginia valeriae Herpetological Review 26 (4): 210 - get paper here
- Kennicott 1859. Notes on coluber calligaster of Say, and a description of a new species of Serpents in the collection of the north Western University of Evanston,Ill. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 11: 98-100 - get paper here
- Kessler, Eric M. 1997. Geographic Distribution. Virginia valeriae Herpetological Review 28 (2): 99 - get paper here
- Meyers, Charles W. 1962. Ontogenetic color variation of the snake Virginia valeriae Herpetologica 18 (4): 273-274 - get paper here
- Miller, Brian T. 1995. Virginia valeriae Herpetological Review 26 (3): 157 - get paper here
- Miller, Brian T.;Miller, Joyce L. 1994. Virginia valeriae (smooth earth snake). USA: Tennesee Herpetological Review 25 (4): 168 - get paper here
- Mitchell, J. C. & Reay, K.K. 1999. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Virginia. Specialty Publication 1, VA Dept of Game and Fisheries, 122 pp. - get paper here
- Mitchell, J.C. 1994. The reptiles of Virginia. Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, ca. 350 pp.
- Palmer, W.M. & Braswell, A.L. 1995. Reptiles of North Carolina. Univ. North Carolina Press
- Pisani, G. R. 1972. Remarks on the holotype of Virginia valeriae elegans (Kennicott) Herpetologica 28 (4): 348 - get paper here
- Pisani, George R.;Collins, Joseph T. 1971. The smooth earth snake, Virginia valeriae (Baird and Girard), in Kentucky Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Sciences 32 (1/2): 16-25
- Powell R; Collins J T; Fish L D 1992. Virginia valeriae. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 552: 1-6 - get paper here
- Pyron, R.Alexander; Frank T. Burbrink 2009. Neogene diversification and taxonomic stability in the snake tribe Lampropeltini (Serpentes: Colubridae) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52 (2): 524-529 - get paper here
- Richmond, N. D. 1954. The ground snake Haldea valeriae in Pennsylvania and West Virginia with description of new subspecies Annals of the Carnegie Museum 33 (15): 251-260
- Rossman D A; Wallach V 1991. Virginia Baird and Girard. Earth snakes. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles No. 529: 1-4 - get paper here
- Saenz, Daniel;Collins, Christopher S.;Trees, Toni;Williamson, J. Howard 1999. Geographic distribution. Virginia valeriae Herpetological Review 30 (1): 56 - get paper here